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501 The following reference in the Lineage Books of the Daughters of the American Revolution is incorrect. She is not a descendant of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. (Note to File - JP Rhein)

Mrs. Coral Chaffin Waterbury, born in Benton County, Iowa, DAR # 87645, is a daughter of Emma Stewart, listed on page 42 of A Family of Millers and Stewarts. The DAR reference lists her mother as Emma Steuart and her grandfather as James Charles Steuart. Her great-grandfather is shown as William Steuart, Jr. (b.1779), m 2nd Eleanor Knox. Her reference is to William Steuart (1738-1831) and that he was married in 1760 to Mary Lass. She also states that he received a grant of land and that he died in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. I suspect that this is where some of the Stewart researchers arrived at the conclusion that William II was married twice.

Mrs. Coral Chaffin Waterbury.
DAR ID Number: 87645
Born in Benton County, Iowa.
Wife of Frank Calvin Waterbury.
Descendant of Francis Chaffin, Jesse Walcott, Lieut. William Steuart, as follows:
1. David S. Chaffin (b. 1828) m. 2nd, 1864, Emma Steuart (b. 1842).
2. Shadrach Chaffin (1797-1884) m., 1819, Sarah Salliday (1800-40); James Charles Steuart (1813-56) m., 1828, Harriet Mason (1814-97).
3. Reuben Chaffin (1766-1807) m., 1788, Eunice Walcott (1766-99); William Steuart, Jr. (b. 1779), m. 2nd Eleanor Knox.
4. Francis Chaffin m., 1756, Rebecca Cummings; Jesse Wolcott m., 1755, Rebecca Conant; William Steuart m., 1760, Mary Lass.
Francis Chaffin (1730-78) enlisted for three years in the Massachusetts Line. He was born in Littleton, Mass., and died in service at Valley Forge.
Jesse Walcott (1734-1800) enlisted, 1778, in a company from Bolton, Mass., and, 1779, served in Captain Houghton's company, Colonel Whitney's regiment. He was born in Salem; died in Bolton, Mass.
Also No. 80367.
William Steuart (1738-1831) served as lieutenant in Col. Moses Hazen's regiment, “Congress' Own.” He received a grant of land, which remained in the family nearly a century. He was born in Donegal County, Ireland; died in Mercer County, Pa.
Also No. 80367.
 
Stewart, Lieutenant William (I0010)
 
502 The following was furnished by Connell Alec Stewart, great-grandson of J. Barton Miller.

"JB Miller came from Lancaster, Penna in early 1860's. He had three sons, Dr. John Miller, William Miller and AB Miller. JB Miller bought the "big white house" from the Lyons family around 1870. JB Miller owned a store in Callensburg where he did quite well and speculated in the gas and timber business. Eventually he owned the majority of the gas lines run in Sligo when gas lines were put in. Additionally, he owned a brick factory in Sligo and the bricks fired at the factory were used to build the house I was born in.

JB started another store in Sligo and it was a general merchandise store named JB Miller and Sons. John (JB's son) went to medical school and did not participate in the general merchandise store. William and AB (my great grandfather) ran the store and it was successful as well. The two sons also ran the brick factory.

AB Miller (my great grandfather) died in 1917, leaving a wife and two children (Ben & Anna Mae who was my grandmother). Will had two sons...one left and moved to California and the other, Harry, remained in Sligo.

Getting back to Dr. John Miller...he married Mae Hutchinson who was indeed from Iowa. Hutchinson was the middle name of Dr. Connell H. Miller."

 
Miller, Jacob Barton (I3699)
 
503 The following was received from Eric Schafer, Binghamton, New York on August 10, 2014.

"...Adam Mahoney, son of Johathan Mohney is my 3rd great-grandfather. He was killed by a kick from his horse on Christmas Day, 1857.

Adam had four sons who fought in the Civil War; Simon and George survived, while Franklin and Henderson died at Andersonville. George was my great-great-grandfather. Also, the boy's uncle, Michael Hawk (brother of their mother Elizabeth) was in Andersonville and died shortly after being liberated in 1865.

George's grandson, also George Mohney, was my grandfather. George married a Julia Shaffner. Julia's grandfather, Henry, and his two brothers, Phillip and Richard, also fought in Pennsylvania regiments in the war. Henry was badly wounded at Fair Oaks, Richard also survived despite twice being captured, but Phillip was killed at the Battle of Glendale on June 30, 1862."

 
Mohney, Adam (I9895)
 
504 The following was recited by William Craig (1761-1854) to his son, Washington Craig, who stated that “I received from my Father’s lips the following account this 18th day of April 1854”.

"In the county of Antrim, my Father lived three miles from Bellymoney (or Bellymens, the writing is not distinct). My Father's name was James, my Mother's name was Margaret Smith, before marriage.

“When I left my Father's home May 17, 1783, I had two brothers living, Alexander and John, Alexander having served in the Revolutionary war in the English Army, Quartermaster and having returned home about the time I left, but I did not know it when I sailed for this country, Katherine having married to a man by the name of Dougherty before I left. My parents all from Scotland. I was born October 17, 1761. Sailed for this country May 17, 1783, in the ship called by name "Ireland Volunteer" and landed in Philadelphia July 28th, 1783. I, some years afterwards, learned that my Father and Mother were both dead."

On August 19, 1854 following the death of William Craig on July 5, 1854, Washington Craig wrote to his brother, James Craig (1803-1877) stating that the above is precisely as Father gave the matter to me …we are all in the usual health but Quincy (youngest brother of Washington and James), he being in much danger of going blind having scrofula in the eyes. No more at present. Greenville, Limestone, Pa. Signed by Washington Craig. This copy is from the original copies by George W. Craig and given to his daughter Marie L. Craig on February 9, 1931.

(Source - Furnished by Pegi Males Nelson, 4th great-granddaughter of James Craig 1735-1800) and 5th great-granddaughter of Lieutenant William Stewart (1738-1811)) 
Craig, William (I4141)
 
505 THE IMMIGRANT - JAMES GALBRAITH SR. 1666-1744, By Lelia Booth
This article appeared in THE RED TOWER VoL 1/7, No. 3 - Spring 1985.

James Galbreath, 52 years old, arrived in Pennsylvania in October 1718 on the ship "Wm. Galley", Capt. Saml' Haines (MacDaid Memorial Library, FL Passenger Search and Attestation). The account books of Penn's agents show that by September 6, 1719 James Galbraith "late of Ireland" is charged in 1720 for 100 acres out near the Susquehanna R. (Keith, Chronicles of Penn 1688-1748, Vol. 111, p. 596)

A letter written in 1720 by James Logan, agent for the Penn family, refers to the Donegal grants to the Scotch/Irish: "if kindly used, will I believe be orderly as they have hitherto been, and easily dealt with, they will also, I expect, be a leading example to others." However, they didn't turn out to be all that "easily dealt with" as we see in later letters between Logan and the Penns. In a letter written in February 1733/4 Logan refers to the setters of Donegal that he had encouraged to settle there in 1719-20 "they had some losses by some of the 5 Nations Indians, in so much that the Assembly made good some of the losses". He mentions that some of the Tracts were very poor and worth very little and that some of the area was full of Barrens (land that had been used by the Indians and burned over), and that he had "vast deal of trouble with them without one single farthing advantage". Penn wrote more than one letter regarding "Terms for Ye Donnegallions" payments for their land. The settlers refused to pay for their land and it took about fifteen years for the matter to be settled.

We have no record of James's marriage but consensus seems to be that it was to Rebecca Chambers daughter of Arthur Chambers. This is possible for there were several Chambers families in Ireland and also there were Chambers among the early Donegal and Derry settlers.

It seems that most of James's family came with him. His three sons were John, Andrew and James Jr., who was about fifteen years of age. John, about twentyeight years old, married with one or two children, and Andrew, also probably married, soon set up their own households. Daughters Eleanor and Isobel also came for we find records of their marriages at First Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia in 1734 and 1735. His daughter Rebecca is said by Egle and in "Torrance and Allied Families" - to have married in Ireland to Alexander Stewart of Fort Stewart and Carnomanga, County Donegal. Alexander died 1743 and his oldest son, Alexander, fell heir to the estate. About 1745, Mrs. Rebecca Stewart with her other five children came to Pennsylvania. She died 1748/9.

James and his sons were immediately active in helping to organize a Presbyterian church in the new settlement. That first building was a small log cabin with "look-outs" at the corners where men of the congregation kept watch. This log building, which was used for about twelve years, was built by the Big Spring. Since people came from long distances and there were several services during the day it was necessary to be near a spring for water to supply man and beast.

James is on the Pa. Tax List'.

James Galbraith 1/6 W. Connestoga 1722
" 1/8 Donegal 1724
(W.Connestoga changed to Donegal 1722
James Galbraith 1/6 Donegal 1725
" 1/6 " 1726

James Sr. and James Jr. both acquired land in Derry Township about ten miles to the north. Derry Township grew up where two Indian paths - the Allegheny running close to US 422 and the Conewago running south from Manada Gap to Conewago Creek - intersected near Derry Spring and the James Galbraith Plantation. The area was designated 'Galbraith' on early maps.

We do not know when James Sr. went to live in Derry nor do we know what happened to his wife, Rebecca. James was probably living with his son James Jr. when he died on the 23rd of August 1744 aged 78. He is buried in the old cemetery in the Derry Presbyterian Churchyard, Hershey, Pennsylvania. James Sr. and James Jr. are on the Honor Rofl of those buried there - Frontiersmen: James Galbraith Sr. and James Galbraith Jr.

In the southwest comer of the churchyard are two flat slabs of white marble. On one:

Here lieth the remains of the/ Rev. William Bertram, first/ pastor of this congregation/ who departed this life/ 2nd May, 1746/ Aged 72 years/ As also/ Elizabeth, his daughter) wife of James Galbraith, Esqr./ who departed this life, 2nd Feb./ A.D. 1799, Aged 85 years.
On the other slab: Here Heth the remains of / James Galbraith/ who departed this life/ ye 23rd August, 1744/ Aged 78 years/ Also/ James Galbraith, Esqr./ The younger/ on ye I I th June, 1786/ Aged 83 years/ Who dwelt beloved by all) In rational piety, modest hope,/ and cheerful resignation/
Elizabeth....... (probably wife of Rev. Bertram).

But - Who was our James? Where did he come from in Ireland? And why did he come? In 1714-1719 there was severe drought in Ireland and crops were ruined with a great loss of the flax crop and of sheep. Industries suffered, the economy was bad. On top of the economic problems there were severe restrictions on and discrimination against the Presbyterians.

It seemed we had the answer to the puzzle when the following information came to hand - reference: "Galbraiths of Donegal" by Joel Munsell. (So far I have been unable to find this book in our libraries - Is it perhaps a part of another book?) [Editors note: This article is part of the book Pennsylvania Genealogies by Wm. Henry Egle]

John Galbraith, Roscavy

John Galbraith, 1620-1668: bom Blessingburn, Ireland, died Clogher Parish, Roscavy, County Tyrone, Ireland. Will probated 1669. James Galdstane, Exec. Issue: Arthur, second son - inherited estate of Baflyvaden (one mile east of Five-MileTown). He married Mary Gladstane who paid off some debt - probably on the estate.
John
James, bom 1666
(The names Arthur, John and James continued for generations in the Galbraith family in America.)

To check out the above information we delved into some geography, atlases and topographical dictionaries of Ireland. Pat D'Arcy and her husband contacted the Deputy Keeper at the Pubfic Records Office of Ireland for the Will of John (1668).

All of the above mentioned places are within five to ten miles of 'Roscavy' which is near Six-Mile-Cross in County Tyrone. A "Topographical Dictionary of Ireland" by Samuel Lewis, p. 344, gives some information: The parish of Clogher is of great extent, and comprehends the manors of Augher, in which is the town of that name; Clogher (granted by Charles I to the bishop) in which is the town of Clogher; Blessingburne, in which is the town of Five-Mile-Town-Mount Stewart; and part of the manor of Killfaddy, granted to Sir Wm. Cope ... Besides the Episcopal palace, the parish contains several fine residences. The deanery or glebe-house, which is about a quarter of a mile west of the cathedral is a handsome house in a fertfle and well planted grebe. Not far distant from it is Augher Castle, the splendid residence of Sir J. M. Richardson Bunbury, Bart.; Cecil, the seat of the Rev. Francis Gervais; Corick, of the Rev. Dr. Story; Killyfaddy of R. W. Maxwell, Esq.; Blessingbume Cottage, of Col. Montgomery; Daisy-Hill of A. Miller, Esq. Fardross, the ancient seat of A. Upton Gladstanes, Esq.; There are two chapels of ease in the parish, one at Five-Mile-Town or Blessingbune and one at NewtonSaville.

In the book "Maps of Ireland" by Taylor and Skinner (1778-1783) - Map 9257 Shows Gladstanes Esq. property called Lisbourie and across the road is Fardross called the ancient seat of the Gladstanes. This is near Clogher. The Stewarts were there by 1619 and where there were Stewarts there were generally Galbraiths to be found - so the 1620 date for a birth there is possible. There were both Galbraiths and Gladstanes in the area. The Lowry land was also near Roscavy and in Donegal, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the Lowrys and the Galbraiths were neighbors. There is record of a Lowry Galbraith, of a Galbraith daughter marrying a Lowry, and it is said that the Lowry's still name the eldest son in the family Galbraith Lowry. So there must be some close connection between the Lowry and Galbraith families.

So - we have all the right names and dates and a likely place - But--

The Deputy Keeper at the Public Record Office of Ireland says they have no record of the Will of John Galbraith, Roscavy 1668/9. They do have the Will of John Galbraith of that address dated 1752. I have a copy of this Will through the kindness of Pat D'Arcy and her husband.

Abstract of the Will of John Galbraith dated 1752:
(1)Speaks of a marriage property agreement with wife Catherine Perry in 1729. (Catherine died before 1752.)
(2)Eldest son James-second son George; eldest daughter Catherine; daughter Anne Marie; Brother Arthur and wife Rebecca; sister Tracy; sons John Forbes, Samuel and Lowry; daughter Mary.
(3)Galbraith Lowry and Thomas Gaidstane - Overseers of Will and Guardians of his children.
(4)Brother-in-Law George Perry and brother Arthur - Executors.

Mr. D'Arcy also found a record of some Galbraith burials in the graveyard at the church of Cloghemy which is near the junction of Fintonia Road with Omagh/Six Mile Cross Road - not too far from Roscavy.

To the east of the church there is a walled enclosure, the burial place of a family called Galbraith. There is built into the south wall of this enclosure a large freestone slab bearing the following inscription in capital letters:

THIS BURYING GROUND/ ERECTED By JAMES GALBRAITH OF ROSCAVY/ AND SAMUEL GALBRAITH OF / OMAGH ESQ THE 3RD GNERATION AT ROSCAVY FROM/ JOHN THE FIRST/ JOHN GALBRAITH OF ROSCAVY GENTLEMAN DIED/ 28 OF MAY 1668 AGED 48/ CAPTAIN JAMES GALBRATH HIS SON DIED IOTH OF MARCH/ 1706 AGED 38 CAPTAIN/ JOHN GALBRAITH HIS SON/ DIED 26 OF JAN 1742 AGED/ 72 THE THREE BURRYED (sic) IN CLOGHER JOHN GALBRARM ESQ DIED FEB 1732 AGED/ 40 YEARS AS DID CATHERINE/ GALBRAITH OR PERRY HIS WiFE 7TH DEC 1749 AGED 36/ AND BOTH BURRYED IN THE/ CHANCEL IN CLOGEERNY/.

James and Samuel would seem to be two of the sons of John Galbraith (d. 1752) mentioned in his Will. The date for John Galbraith Esq. died Feb. 1732 has to be 1752 for it is obviously the John married to Catherine Perry who wrote his Will 1752. It seems to me there must also be confusion in the reading of the dates for the age and/or the dates for John Galbraith died 1742 age 72. Were the generations:
John of Roscavy died 1668, Capt. James died 1706 - Ist. generation John died 1742 - lst generation John died 1752 - 2nd generation James and Samuel who erected the Memorial - the 3rd generation from John the First.

Or does one follow Burke's "Landed Gentry of Ireland" (1904) which also give us trouble with dates:
(1)John died 1668.
(2)Capt. James (1668-1706).
(3)John died 1742 (72 years of age)
(4)John in Catherine died 1751, 40 yrs.
(5)James m 1764 died 1768 left issue of 2 sons and 5 daughters!!

The above cemetery record does indicate that John Galbraith 1620-1668 did live at Roscavy but that his sons James and John remained in Ireland. So although we have the right names it does appear that they remained at Roscavy for some generations. I have also tried to find some information on a "John Galbraith of Newton-Cunningham: with no success whatsoever. After all this I end up in a state of confusion - still wondering who our James was and where was his home in Ireland. Since those settlers to Pennsylvania named their new home Donegal one would think it possible that County Donegal was where they had left their hearts. In any case, our pioneer, James Galbraith Sr., seems to have been at age 52 a tough, independent, energetic leader and a staunch Presbyterian."

The following Information was furnished by Mary H. Cole. "I'm not sure James Galbraith was the son of John Galbraith. So the story goes - James named his son (I believe his oldest son) John. It was speculated that because James' father was John. At some point they dropped the speculation without proof. The hearth tax shows the name of James and others but no John."

A record of arrival in Philadelphia shows "James Galbraith 52, wife Rebecca, eldest son John 28, wife Janet 25, son Robert 3, son Andrew 26".

"James, John and Andrew Galbraith are listed as some of the Pioneer Settlers of East Donegal Township in 1718. (Source - History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Ellis and Evans 974.815 EL 59h - page 759)

East Donegal Township was organized in the year 1722 and embraced all of the territory contained in West Conestoga Township, which was taken from Conestoga Township in the year 1721. (Source - History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Ellis and Evans 974.815 EL 59h - page 757.)

"No report on early Galbraiths can close without a few words on this verified immigrant, from whom at least thirty-two of our members spring. James is documented with land in 1719, so likely came a bit before, as many genealogies so state. Extensive searches by several members (most recently and extensively by Dave Colwell) have failed to show that he arrived in Philadelphia on the vessel William Galley or that he was son of 'John of Ireland'. Nor has it been shown that he had or came with brothers John and Robert. No document to the so-called John of Philadelphia has ever surfaced although there are indications that someone of that ilk was the father of the York County Galbraiths, beginning by 1750. 'Robert of Paxtang' lived a few miles from James, and may well have been his brother but given the birth dates of the children of the two families, it fits better if Robert were a cousin or nephew. Note that we do have at least ten members who descend from (perhaps brother) Robert. I have twice use ' at least' in this section as we have many members, myself included, who have not been able to trace their roots back to those early times in Pennsylvania and some of us surely come from these prolific arrivers." (Source - THE RED TOWER, Winter 2005)

The following article was taken from The Red Tower, Clan Glabraith Association, Volume XXVI, No 2, Winter 2004

Galbraith Genealogy Gleanings
By William Gilbreath

"I have said in several articles that if we have Galbraiths living near each other, we would expect that they are related. This seems obvious, at least in early colonial days or on the frontier, as one would journey there with friends or relatives and settle near them. And, once you had a Galbraith settled (usually with children and often with siblings and in-laws), the descendants built. up a population of relatives in a relatively small area until a son found a better opportunity on the frontier as new lands opened. The process was then repeated a generation or two later, usually with the new family again settling close together. This guideline has been helpful to many of us in placing our Galbraith in a given line, but be wary of pitfalls. Let us consider a few examples.

Within our Association the descendants of James Galbraith of Ireland who settled in then Chester County, PA, by 1719 are the most numerous. James, with sons John and Andrew, lived within a few miles of each other. There was a Robert Galbraith, also with many member descendants who settled about 15 miles to the North of this group. Unfortunately, diligent searches by Dave Colwell,. Gayle Galbraith, Laurel Anderson and quite a few others, myself included, have failed to substantiate the reported passenger list coupling these two possible brothers and family members. Have we been led astray on their relationship because of a perhaps non-existing list? Did they even arrive at the same time? We do not know when Robert actually arrived-it could have been a few years later. The absence of early records for him was 'explained' as Robert settling in the hinterlands and the taxman missing him. I do believe the chances are fair that Robert and James were indeed brothers (or perhaps James was Uncle to Robert) simply because of the rarity of Galbraiths in the new world at that time. One could have chosen to settle virtually any place on more than 1000 miles of the eastern seaboard plus the British Caribbean lands, so 15 miles is relatively close. On the other hand, would not relatives have elected to be near enough to assist each other on a daily basis? A DNA test of a Galbraith male of Robert s line would certainly help to resolve this mystery.

We can show (see Spring, 2004, RT, Earliest American Galbraiths) that a Samuel Galbraith settled about 25 miles south of James of our first example in East Nottingham Twp., Chester County, PA. Samuel and James both appeared in their respective township 1721 tax records. On the big scale, Samuel and James are certainly close and James' entourage probably journeyed through East Nottingham on the way to their lands. Why not consider them as brothers? Perhaps it is because Samuel is virtually unknown and genealogists have never. given him much consideration. He is on early tax-lists but Samuel does not. appear in histories or accounts of the region or in church records as do the Galbraiths somewhat to the north. Our Association has but one known Samuel descendant-member Phyllis Miller's husband Gerald. For me, the strongest evidence of familial relation for James and Robert occurred with Robert's estate in 1738. John Galbraith and James Mitchel of Donegal, Lancaster Co., are the sureties (i.e. bonded to assure a legal distribution of the estate) to Robert's estate in Paxtang. We think that John, the son to James Galbraith, is the nephew to Robert. In contrast nothing has surfaced showing any connection between the families of Samuel and James.

The next example is Joseph Galbraith of 1780 Mecklenburg Co. (Charlotte), North Carolina. I thought (and with me are four other members) for many years he was assuredly related to a Joseph Galbraith (#2) who lived only 5 miles from him. Because there is evidence that Joseph #2 came from Pennsylvania in 1768, I believed this was also the origin of my Joseph, and directed my research to that area. I was, however, always troubled by the fact that these two Josephs never appeared jointly on any document-we expect to see one as a witness for the other or perhaps a land transaction between the two if they were related. When my DNA results came back I found I was not related to the early Pennsylvania lines of the Scotch-Irish Galbraiths but rather connected to other members whose ancestors came directly from Scotland to America. A bit more diligence turned up a Joseph Galbreth who landed in Charleston, South Carolina, settled about 35 miles due south of Charlotte in 1768 and moved from that land before 1780. So now I had either the almost impossible coincidence of three Joseph Galbraiths in close proximity and time or, more reasonably, that there were but two, and one, mine, had moved between two nearby locales on the Catawba River. I had certainly been lead astray for a number of years by the 'nearness' doctrine, with no other supporting evidence.

The third case are the York County Galbraiths, of or near Mount Pleasant Township, who are still a mystery and we do not yet know how much truth will come from the nearness and relationship rule. The 19th Century genealogists report (without evidence) that a brother John had arrived with the James and Robert of our first example. They said that John tarried a bit in Philadelphia and then he or his children went west to York County, giving rise to the Mount Pleasant Galbraiths. Briefly, for these Galbraiths: Andrew Galbraith appeared in 1751 Mount Pleasant. A 1754 deed shows a John Galbraith living a few miles from Andrew. A James Galbraith lived about 5 miles north of them and a daughter of John married a son of James. Robert, attorney of Philadelphia, bought that 1754 land from John in 1765, and moved to about 4 miles west of John's family. Another Robert, son to John. resided one farm separated from Andrew. In the other direction, the granddaughter from a family adjoining Andrew married William Galbraith of Baltimore (of Betsy DeCarolis' line). Another John lived 8 miles north of John beginning in the 176Os. You might think these Galbraiths were all related and they may have been. In past Red Towers, I discussed them and certain documents that perhaps link Galbraiths of these names. But no document has been unearthed that says something clear-cut as "my uncle John of Philadelphia".

Our imagination can take over if we blindly apply the nearness rule, especially in the York County case. I imagine that Andrew was likely the one mentioned in our first example, so if there really were that brother John (to James and Robert) in Philadelphia, then John and Andrew of Mount Pleasant would be cousins. John and James might also have been cousins and their children then married second cousins. If we have Andrew placed correctly, then William of Baltimore was his grandnephew. Attorney Robert might be brother to James and thus linked to still another John who died in 1766 Philadelphia with brothers of those names. Please note my many uses of 'might', "would", and 'if'.

On balance, neighboring Galbraiths are more often related than not but one should surely keep looking for documentation and consider other options. It is a useful rule but use caution since a document clearly linking the two is worth much more. DNA is the proof-in-the pudding but we cannot tell how close the relationship is and those Galbraith neighbors could be very distant cousins."

"The family tree of Lord Strathclyde in Burke's "Peerage and Barontage" indicates that there were at least three Galbraiths from that family who emigrated to Ireland at the time of the King James Plantation. They were Robert, 17th Chief, and James and John, who were sons of a Humphrey Galbraith and wife Isobel Cunningham.

In the introduction of "The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James I by Prof. Percival Maxwell, the author states that the sources available for studying the Plantation in Ulster are inadequate, as no parish registers have survived - if they were ever kept. Lists of tenants are rare and only one list providing statistics on women and children has survived. Since the Galbraith Clan held lands in Stirlingshire and possibly in Dunbartonshire, the logical thing to do is to find which of the undertakers came from that area. The book mentioned above indicates only two of the undertakers came from Stirlingshire, Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox, and Esme' Stewart, Lord Aubigney. Cousins of the King, they indicated their willingness to take up land in Ireland in March, 1609. By 1610, Lord Aubigney passed all his responsibilities to Sir James Hamilton.

The Duke of Lennox was one of the chief undertakers and was assigned the favorable location in the precinct of Portlough. This is in county Donegal, previously called Tirconnefl. "The Plantation of Uster" by Rev. George Hill, indicates that a Humphrey and a Robert Galbraith were in possession of the manor of Corkagh (later Corgagh), consisting of 1,000 acres. This Robert may have been a son or relative of the Laird of Culcreuch who died in Ireland in 1642. Robert may also have been a close relative of Humphrey Galbraith. In 1664, Humphrey and Robert sold Corgagh.

In 1666 William Penn was Aide-deCamp to the Earl of Arran, who was a relative of Humphrey Galbraith's wife, so there is a likelihood that John Galbraith of Blessingbun, County Tyrone, Ireland, lived at Corgagh before going to America with Wm. Penn. Blessingboune was north of Five-Mile Town in County Tyrone. The "Index of Clogher Will to 1888" at Public Records in N. Ireland has the John Galbraith of Blessingbum Probate 1669. It appears that James Galbraith bom 1666, was a descendant of these Galbraiths. He had a son bom in 1692 who accompanied him to America. Since relatives were often using the same first names, names such as James, John, Robert and Humphrey, it is difficult to separate the Irish Galbraiths at this time.

When Robert Galbraith, 17th Galbraith Chief, came to Ireland, it is likely he was able to obtain land there because of his connections with the Duke of Lennox. Robert emigrated to Ireland after 1624 and died about 1642. The Earl of Lennox was promoted to Duke of Lennox in the reign of King James I. The D'Arcys called on Bertie (Albert) Galbraith, farmer of Lower Craigiedoes in County Donegal where many Galbraiths of the Lowlands settled. Many Galbraiths are buried in an old Church of Ireland cemetery at nearby Taughboyne, a cemetery used by all denominations for several generations. Bertie said his ancestors farmed in the area for many generations, that they were Presbyterians, and were buried at Taughboyne cemetery.

The D'Arcys also interviewed a James Galbraith who was farming near Omagh, County Tyrone. His ancestors had first settled in Craigiedoes, having sailed up Lough Swilly to get there. Turning to the Cunningham settlement: Sir James Cunningham, his uncle, brother and another Cunningham, were allocated land in the precinct of Portlough. Sir James arrived by the port of Londonderry. Since some Galbraiths were connected with the Cunninghams in Scotland, there may have been Galbraiths in the Cunningham settlement.

In an old burial ground near the ruins of Templeplasteragh Church, County Antfini, there is a gravestone inscribed: "Flora MacDonnell burying place / Here lieth the body of her husband, Dundan Galbraith of Islay who departed this Life Sept. 1795, age 55 years". There appears to have been many Galbraiths in Islay in the early 19th century. Islay is the most southerly island of the Hebrides.

Apparently there were Galbraiths who migrated from Scotland to Kilkeel and around Downpatrick, both in County Down. There were strict Presbyterians among them, some of whom moved to the parish of Creggan near Freeduff Presbyterian Church. This was in the extreme southern portion of County Armagh before 1800. Unclaimed land, this area consisted of moor, bog and hills, but the hard-working Presbyterians improved the land and later native Irish began moving in and buying it. The Presbyterians emigrated to America in large numbers, though some remained, generally moving northward to Newtonhamilton parish in County - Armagh and Mullyash Mountain and Muckno townland of County Monoghan. By 1840 there were many Galbraiths living in this area, today there seems to be only two in Newtonhamilton parish." (Source-Section III, More on the Galbraiths From the Redtower, The Clan Galbraith Association of North America, Extracted 1992 by Glenn Smith)

I do not believe the above John Galbraith is the father of James Galbraith, born about 1666 in Ireland. See Notes Section on James Galbraith, born about 1666, for additional details. I have retained this information, however, pending a final determination as to forebears of James Galbraith. (Note to File-J. P. Rhein) 
Galbraith, James (I0097)
 
506 The Irish Times article of November 10, 1940, states "Sir Alexander, who succeeded as second Baronet, married, about 1648, his cousin Catherine, daughter of Sir Robert Newcomen, and was killed at the battle of Dunbar, 3rd September, 1650, fighting on the King's side". An article in "The Stewarts", Volume VI, by Walter A. Stewart, September 1, 1933, pages 370 and 371, states that "Sir Alexander is chiefly known to history for having conducted the 'First Siege of Derry' in the year 1649, when the city was held for the English Parliament by Sir Charles Coote. On the failure of that operation, Sir Alexander proceeded to Scotland and was killed in the following year at the battle of Dunbar. He figures under the name of 'Colonel Alexander Stewarte' in the list of 'Men of note killed at this dismal routte of 'Dunbar', given in the Historical Works of Sir James Balfour, Lyon King of Arms, 1630-1654 (see p. 98, Vol. IV of the edition published in London, 1825)"

"Sir Alexander Stewart, born about 1616, was "a military commander of considerable repute" and "a gentleman of great integrity and fervent in propagating the gospel interest in the districts around Derry," said Patrick Adair. in his TRUE NARRATIVE OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN IRELAND", 1623-1670. In 1648, when Oliver Cromwell had impounded King Charles I and made himself virtual master of England, the Presbyterian forces in Ulster, remaining loyal to the king, planned to drive Cromwell's partisan, Sir Charles Coote, out of the city of Londonderry, which he was garrisoning, with 1,000 men. Sir Alexander Stewart, who had been left in command of the Lagan forces in northwest Ulster, brought his troops, to Derry and sat down before that city in March, 1649. His uncle, Sir Robert Stewart, joined him in the siege with a body of royalists, and Sir George Monro, with a commission from King Charles II - King Charles I was beheaded on Jan. 30,1649 - arrived with a contingent of Scottish highlanders and Irishmen. However, the siege petered out in August, after Lord Montgomery of Ards, hitherto a staunch Presbyterian, came to supersede Monro and the two Stewarts. There was just too much going on for a man of principle to ride out the storm.

Sir Alexander Stewart married Catherine Newcomen, daughter of Sir Robert, third son of Sir Robert Newcomen of Mosstown, County Longford. Catherine's mother was Anna Bullein, a grandniece of the late Queen Elizabeth. Sir Alexander had become the second baronet of Rathmelton on the death of his father in 1646 and he felt a strong attachment to his sovereign as well as to his church. He went to Scotland and joined the Scottish Covenanter army fighting Cromwell for King Charles II. He was killed in the battle of Dunbar, in Haddingtonshire, fought on Sep. 3, 1650. His son William, who was to become the third baronet and heir to the greater part of the Stewart estate, excepting Fort Stewart, was born six weeks after his father's death. Alexander's widow Catherine married Sir Arthur Forbes, later created earl of Granard, who became the boy's guardian. Alexander's only son: William 1650; married Mary Coote daughter of Richard." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, Volume 37, Number 6, December 1959)

"Dunbar was the decisive battled in Cromwell's war against royalty. The Scottish army, under General David Leslie, was well equipped, in fine fettle, and occuppied an impregnable position on their own home ground, while Cromwell was baffled, his soldiers sick and tired, a movement of retreat might prove disastrous. While Cromwell hesitated some chaplins or religious exhorters in Leslie' camp had a stunning idea. Why not trust in God, who was on their side, and march down to glorious victory! This must have been sensible to Leslie, or the preachers had him bluffed, for look! boys, here they come! Just before the crack of dawn the whole Scottish army, like confused rabble, marched out to be murdered. Cromwell was quick to see the fluke, and he threw all his resources into the fight. Within less than sixty minutes 3,000 Scotchmen had been killed, 10,000 were trapped and taken prisoner, and a few hundred - including the preachers - ran back into the hills and escaped. This lucky break established Cromwell as a great general - and statesman - in the eyes of European diplomats and was a blow to Scottish national pride from which Scotland never recovered.' (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, Volume 57, Number 6, December 1959)

"During the fall and winter of 1650 over 3,000 Scottish prisoners of war made a perilous 120 mile march from their defeat at the Dunbar battlefield in Scotland to Durham Cathedral in the North of England. From there most were sent to staff labor starved English colonial ventures in the West Indies, Virginia, Massachusetts, Maine, and Ireland. Sixty-two were sent aboard the Unity across the wintry seas of the Atlantic to the Saugus Ironworks in Lynn, Massachusetts." (The Redtower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol. XXII, No. 2, March 2001)
 
Stewart, ro Sir Alexander (I0184)
 
507 The Kilmarnock Old Parish Register was sent to me from the Baird Institute:

James Craig, shoemaker in Kilmarnock and Margaret Smith, daughter of the deceased John
Smith, farmer in Wylieland in the Parish of Fenwick both in this Parish, were booked on Saturday March 25,1751 and after orderly proclamation three several Sabbaths were married on Tuesday April 9 1751 by Mr. Locke, There is a question mark after Locke as they were not sure of the writing. (Furnished by Pegi Males Nelson)

When James and Margaret went to Ireland from Scotland is not known - at least before April 18, 1854, the date of birth of son, William. (Note to File – JP Rhein)
 
Smith, Margaret (I4144)
 
508 The Kilmarnock Old Parish Register was sent to Pegi Males Nelson from the Baird Institute.

“James Craig, shoemaker in Kilmarnock and Margaret Smith, daughter of the deceased John Smith, farmer in Wylieland in the Parish of Fenwick, both in this Parish, were booked on Saturday March 25,1751 and after orderly proclamation three several Sabbaths were married on Tuesday April 9, 1751 by Mr. Locke." There is a question mark after Locke as they were not sure of the writing.

The Parish of Kilmarnock, County of Ayshire, Scotland, was created in medieval times to support the church. Ecclesiastical (quoad sacra) parishes were areas of land whose inhabitants were obliged to pay a proportion of their produce or income to the Church. In the 17th century the crown divided Scotland into burghs, sheriffdoms and parishes for the purpose of taxation. Between 1845 and 1860 civil (quoad civilia) parishes were established with elected parochial boards, these parishes continuing as units of local government until 1975. (Note to File - JP Rhein  
Family F1308
 
509 THE LAST SALUTE OF THE ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA

In an article in the Boston Journal, May 1901, "The Last Salute of The Army of Northern Virginia", General Jousha L. Chamberlain, Commanding the First Brigade of the 1st Division, Fifth Army Corps of The Army of the Potomac stated that the First Brigade had been selected to receive the surrender. "It was the Brigade being that which had fired the first shot at Yorktown at the beginning of the war. The banners were inscribed with all of the battles from the first clear through the long list down to the last." At that time, the 155th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a part of the Third Brigade, Second Division, Fifth Army Corp. and was present at the Last Farewell. {See 'Notes - Milton Stewart' who served with the 155th and was killed in battle outside Petersburg, Virginia on June 18, 1864. Nathan Stewart - served August 22, 1862 to June 2, 1865 and John A. Stewart, first cousins of Milton Stewart, also served with the 155th and were probably present at the Last Farewell} General Chamberlain requested that the Second and Third Brigades also be present. "Nearly an entire day was necessary for that vast parade to pass."

" Actual paroling had begun two days before, but on this last day (April 12, 1865) the Confederates were to go through the physical motions of surrender, stacking arms and turning over their flags. Brigadier General Joshua L, Chamberlain was given the honor of formally receiving the surrender. That morning he formed his command on either side of the Richmond-Lynchburg road, which led from the Confederate camps, across the the North Branch of the Appomattox, and up a slope past the courthouse. 'Great memories arose,' he recalled, as they prepared to receive ' the last remant of the arms and colors of that great army which ours had been created to confront for all that death can do for life.'

The Confederates formed too, silently, some sullenly. Lee would not take part in this, but stayed in his tent. The other Generals were here, though, Gordon's corps in the lead, followed by what remained of Anderson's men, then Heth's and finally Longstreet's. Without drums or fifes they marched forward in the measured tread that had become a part of their souls. When they came in sight of the Federals, they presented a vision that made many gasp. With the ranks of most of the regiments thinned to the size of companies, the scores of battle flags that waved above them made it appear that 'the whole column was crowned with red'.

{The original muster rolls of Virginia's First Brigade, later officially and popularly called the Stonewall Brigade, list a total of 2,600 men, and it is reasonable to assume that more than 5,000 served in the unit during the course of the war. The battle flags of the brigade fluttered amid the smoke of thirty-nine engagements. At Appomattox only 210 men remained - none above the rank of captain - in the five regiments that comprised the brigade. Less than three percent of the men on the original muster rolls owned slaves. - Source - The Stonewall Brigade, James I. Robertson, Jr., Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 1963}

As Gordon approached, Chamberlain spoke to an aide and soon a bugle called the Federals to stiff attention, shifting them from 'order arms' to 'carry arms' as Gordon's men passed. It was, said Chamberlain, the marching salute. 'Gordon at the head of the column, riding with heavy spirit and downcast face, catches the sound of shifting arms, looks up, and, taking the meaning, wheels superbly, making with himself and his horse one uplifted figure, with profound salutation as he drops the point of his sword to the boot toe; then facing to his own command, gives word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position of the manual,- honor answer honor.'

And so it went. Few eyes were dry on either side as the ragged yet proud Confederates passed, made their salutes, then dropped their rifles, bayonets, cartridge boxes, and flags in heaps beyond in a triangle formed just east of the courthouse by the main road and two private lanes. The sight woke 'memories that bound us as no other bond..... What visions thronged as we looked into each other's eyes!' Finally they were all past, their actual numbers uncertain, but when all the stragglers had come in, and all the wounded found, 26,672 were paroled. In addition, Fitzhugh Lee and 1,559 cavalry finally surrendered in bits and pieces. (On Friday, July 3, 1863, at Gettysburg, The Army of Northern Virginia fielded approximately 71,000 troops, The Army of the Potomac approximately 93,000.) But now no one thought of numbers or of victory. 'On our part,' wrote Chamberlain of the ceremony, 'not a sound of trumpet more, nor roll of drum; not a cheer, nor word nor wisper of vain-gloring, nor motion of man standing again at the order, but an awed stillness rather, and breath-holding, as if it were the passing of the dead!

It was done. And now Lee and those who had followed him for so long must travel their separate roads to find what was left of the old life and make what they could of the new. Grant had generously given orders that the paroled soldiers should be allowed free passage on all government transportation in order to reach their homes. Many, accustomed to no other mode of travel but the march, walked."

"Not for fame. Not for place or rank. Not lured by ambition, or goaded by necessity. But in simple obedience to duty as they understood it. These men suffered all, sacrificed all, and dared all." (Source - The Confederate Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery)
 
Stewart, Nathan (I0544)
 
510 THE MCKINNEYS IN NORTHUMBERLAND, MIFFLIN AND CENTRE COUNTIES

The 1790 Federal Census for Pennsylvania lists the names of 15 McKinneys. Five in Northumberland County, unknown township, Rebecca, Abram, William, Daniel, and John; one in Mifflin County; William, four in Cumberland County, David, Jean and two Patricks, all in Hopewell, Newton, Tryborn and West Pennsboro Townships, three in Washington County, and one each in Allegheny and Philadelphia Counties.

In the Northumberland listing, Rebecca is Rebecca Lane (1727-1823) the widow of David McKinney (1735/1740-1784). They were married in 1761. David McKinney is of Scotch-Irish origin and lived in New Jersey and Virginia before he came to Sunbury, Northumberland County, where he located in the spring of 1772. (Floyd's Northumberland County Genealogy, pages 247 to 270.) In the year 1774 a David McKinney is listed as a taxable inhabitant of Augusta Township (embraced that part of Northumberland County south of the North Bend of the Susquehanna River). In the Augusta Township tax list for 1778-1780 a David McKinney, Esq., is listed as owning 739.3 acres. There is an affidavit of Richard Manning, dated October 23, 1783, which states that David McKinney was living on Indian land and that he kept his family in Sunbury. (The Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Volume Viii, page 302) He was a miller by trade, but he established one of the first distilleries at Sunbury and carried on the business for some years. Late in life he removed to a farm on the West Branch, near Great Island, and there he died.

Rebbeca McKinney, widow of David, received a land grant consisting of 300 acres on July 20, 1785. Deed records show that she sold this land to her son in 1802.

David and Rebecca had a family of nine children, Abraham, Mary, John, Isaac, Sarah, Jacob, James, Elizabeth and Rachel. (Floyd's Northumberland County Genealogy, pages 247 to 270) John married Elizabeth Dunn and they had at least one child, Rachel McKinney (1799-1895). John died in 1806. Rachel was raised by her grandmother, Rebecca McKinney, in Sunbury. There is no information available as to Elizabeth Dunn. Rachel later was residing with her uncle, Isaac McKinney and his wife who had removed to Centre County where he became a prominent citizen, establishing an iron furnace and serving as associate judge. Rachel met her future husband, Samuel McKinney (1786-1871) at the home of her uncle, Isaac McKinney. Rachel and Samuel were married May 23, 1816 in Centre County.

Rebecca McKinney: two white females and one free white male of 16 years and upward. I believe this is Rebecca Lane (1737-1823) married in 1761 to David McKinney, (1735/1740-1784) who settled in Sunbury, Northumberland County in 1770. (The date of birth is in conflict with the year 1727 above.) I believe the male in the census listing is Isaac McKinney who married Jane Flemming in 1794. Isaac was a millwright, later a merchant. He was commissioned associate judge in 1819. He built Heckla Furnace at Logan's Gap in 1825. Isaac's sons, David and John became eminent ministers of the gospel, Presbyterian. ( Genealogical and Personal History of Allegheny Valley, Pennsylvania, Editorial Supervisor, John W. Jordan LLD, Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Volumes 2 and 3. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York 1913)

An Isaac McKinney came to Kishacoquillas Valley in 1791 from Centre County. Isaac's parents settled at Sunbury in 1770. Isaac was a millwright, later a merchant. He married Jane Fleming in 1794. (Genealogical Census and Personal History of Allegheny Valley Pennsylvania, Editorial Supervisor, John W. Jordan LLd, Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Volume 2 and 3. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York 1913) This is confusing as Kishacoquillas Valley was in Mifflin County in 1791 and was about 28 miles (Bellevue area) Southwest of Sunbury. Centre County was not formed until 1800 and is to the northwest of this area of Mifflin County. Isaac went to Kishacoquillas Valley from Sunbury prior to his marriage. I believe that he went to Walker Township later.

Abram McKinney: I believe, this is Abraham McKinney (1762-1835). Abraham McKinney, son of David, was born November 12, 1762, and came to Northumberland County from New Jersey. He first lived at what is now the site of Herndon, being one of the earliest settlers thereabout and later moved to Sunbury, where he followed his trade of stonemason and built many of the stone houses in that section. As he was 10 years of age when he came to Northumberland County with his parents it is presumed that David, his father above, may have also settled at Herdon, later moving to Sunbury. Abraham died at Sunbury, September 13, 1885 and was the first person buried in the lower cemetery. He was married to Abigail Lomison and appears to have been a prominent man. Listed as a witness on the Estate of Joseph Pumroy, November 25, 1783. Listed as a surety on the Estate of William Moore, Sr., on August 28, 1798. Listed a surety on the Estate of Adam Fisher, dated December 28, 1798. Listed as an executor for the Estate of John Lyon of Borough of Sunbury, Northumberland County, dated July 24, 1800. The land that John Lyon purchased in Buffaloe Township was from a Jacob McKinney (presumably Abraham's brother). Among Abraham's children were Jacob (1797-1861) married to Rebecca Barbara (1801-1860), Rachel married to John Burrell at Sunbury, John and James, the latter born in 1805 at Mahanoy, Northumberland County. (Commemorative Biographical Record of Pennsylvania, J.H. Beers, 1813)

Willliam McKinney: wife and one son under 16 years of age. This may be the son of David McKinney and Rebecca Lane. No other information available.

Daniel McKinney: one free white male of 16 years and upward, one free white male under 16 years and two free white females including heads of families. No other information available.

The 1800 Federal Census for Miles Township, Northumberland County, lists a John McKinney, one free white male 10 thru 15, one free white male 16 thru 25, one free white male 25 thru 44, one free white female under 10, one free white female 10 thru 15 and one free white female 26 thru 44. This may be John, father of Rachel McKinney (1799-1895), married to Samuel McKinney.

The 1810 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

Samuel McKinney appears eleven lines below the listing for John McKinney. Two free white males 16 through 25, Samuel - October 31, 1786, (one unknown); one free white female 16 thru 25 (one unknown) and one free white female over 45, probably Mary Llewellyn, widow of John McKinney and mother of Samuel. It would appear that John McKinney, the father, died prior to 1810 and that Samuel inherited the property.

Isaac McKinney: Listing includes, among other categories, two white females, 26 thru 44 - one of whom is his wife. I cannot account for the other female. His mother Rebecca Lane (1727-1823) is too old to fit in this category. Listing also includes one other free person and this may be Rachel McKinney (1799-1895) daughter of John McKinney, who is believed to have died young. Isaac and his wife may have been raising Rachel. She met her future husband, Samuel at Isaac's house.

The 1820 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

Isaac McKinney, a family of eight including two white females of forty five and upwards. These are apparently the two females commented on above. Rachel McKinney - 1799, is now married, see following listing. Cannot account for Isaac's mother, Rebecca Lane (1727-1823)

Samuel McKinney: one free white male under 10, one free white male twenty six and under forty five, Samuel October 31, 1786; one free white female of sixteen and under twenty six, Rachel - 1799.

Mary McKinney: one free white female twenty six and under forty five (unknown) and one free white female of forty five and upwards, Mary Llewellyn McKinney, mother of Samuel.

The 1830 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

Samuel McKinney: one male of five and under ten, one male of ten and under fifteen, one male of forty and under fifty, two females under five years of age, one female of five and under ten, one female of ten and under fifteen, one female of thirty and under forty.

Isaac McKinney is listed with a family of eight, including two females of sixty and under seventy. Again, the same question as in the 1810 and 1820 census listings above.

Mary McKinney: one male thirty and under forty, one female of thirty and under forty and one female of sixty and under seventy, Mary Llewellyn McKinney.

(Note to File - JP Rhein)





 
McKinney, David (I2930)
 
511 The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Volume
163
page 59
Miss Julia Eleanor Mcfadden.

DAR ID Number: 162189
Born in Corvallis, Ore.
Descendant of Lieut. William Stewart, as follows:
1. William Stewart McFadden (1847-1916) m. 2d 1889 Sallie Lane (b.
1860).
2. Thomas McFadden (1822-98) m. 1845 Alicia Chapman (1826-63).
3. James A. McFadden (1787-1866) m. 1812 Margaret Stewart (1795-1881).
4. Galbraith Stewart (1766-1848) m. 1791 Elizabeth Scott (1768-1850).
5. William Stewart m. 1760 Mary Gass (b. 1742).
William Stewart served as lieutenant and adjutant in Capt. William
Donaldson's company, 2d battalion, under Col. John Davis, Cumberland
[p.59] County militia, 1777. He was born, 1738, in Ireland; died in
Mercer County, Pa.
 
McFadden, Julia Eleanor (I9771)
 
512 The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Volume 26
page 273

Mrs. Sarah Frances Henderson Keep.
DAR ID Number: 25745
Born in Midddlesex, Pennsylvania.
Wife of William John Keep.
Descendant of Lieut. William Stewart.
Daughter of Dr. William Gate Henderson and Hannah Isabella Stewart, his wife.
Granddaughter of Robert Stewart and Mary Young, his wife.
Gr.-granddaughter of William Stewart and Mary Gass, his wife.
William Stewart served as lieutenant in Col. Moses Hazen's regiment, ?Congress Own?. He received a grant of land, 1783, from the Assembly of Pennsylvania, which remained in the family nearly a century. He was born in Donegal Co., Ireland; died in Mercer Co., Penna.
 
Henderson, Sarah Frances (I1292)
 
513 The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Volume 86
page 114

[p.114] Miss Clarie Maud Dawson.
DAR ID Number: 85295
Born in Moultrie County, Ill.
Descendant of Capt. Patrick Anderson, Lieut. James Anderson, and Lieut. William Stewart, as follows:
1. William C. Dawson (b. 1831), m. 2nd, 1864, Eliza Anderson (1832-1909).
2. William Anderson, m. 1820, Elizabeth McKibben (1799-1884).
3. James Anderson, m. 1790, Mary Stewart.
4. Patrick Anderson, m. Elizabeth Morris; William Stewart, m. 1760, Mary Gass.
Patrick Anderson (1719-93), who had fought in the French and Indian Wars, was captain of the 1st company of Pennsylvania musketry and commanded the battalion as senior captain after the colonel was killed. He was a member of the Assembly, 1778-81. He was born and died in Chester County.
Also No. 73779.
James Anderson (1762-1835) served as lieutenant under Gen. Stephen Moylan, Pennsylvania Line. He was born in Washington County, Pa.; died in Buffalo, N. Y.
William Stewart (1738-1831) served as lieutenant in Col. Moses Hazen's regiment, ?;Congress' Own.? He received a grant of land, which remained in the family nearly a century. He was born in Donegal County, lreland; died in Mercer County, Pa.
Also No. 75522.

 
Dawson, Claire (I9772)
 
514 The next laird of Culcreuch was Thomas Galbraith (the 12th Chief), who was almost certainly son of the abovementioned Andrew. He appears along with Andrew Galbraith, of Culcreuch, in the Retour of John, Lord Darnley, in 1473. Then, in 1484, he had sasine from the Crown of Over Johnstone. He took part in the rising headed by the Earl of Lennox and Robert, 2nd Lord Lyle, in 1489, and was taken at Talla Moss in Stirlingshire and hanged. Sir James Balfour, in his "Annals of Scotland," calls him "Chieffe of the Galbraiths." His lands of Culcreuch, Mulig, Bannachar and others were forfeited, but were soon restored to his successor, James Galbraith, who was without doubt his brother. (Source – Galbraiths of The Lennox, Compiled by Colonel T.L. Galloway of Auchendrana in 1944)

"Balgair, near Culcreuch, along with the nearby Hill of Balgair, had been a holding of Thomas, 12th Chief, in the late 15th century as a result of marriage to a Cunningham lady, but the property reverted to the Cunninghams after Thomas’ execution following the defeat of the Earl of Lennox’ insurrection at “Talla Moss”.

While Balgair and Hill of Balgair were the property of the Cunninghams, most of the land was worked by Galbraiths as tacksmen (long leaseholders). Most of these Galbraiths were apparently descendants of Galbraith Chiefs and number among current descendants prominent individuals, including Thomas Galbraith, Lord Strathclyde." (Source - Clan Glabraith Association)
 
Galbraith, Thomas (I4258)
 
515 THE ORIGIN OF THE STEWARTS

(This article is in some conflict with the line of descent as published by Henry Stewart Fothringham, The Stewarts, Volume 21, No 2 (2001), pages 97 to 100 which is set forth in its entirety in the Notes Section under Aminadab, the first in the maternal line of descent of Walter Fitz Alan, The First High Steward of Scotland. I have elected to retain Round's work here as a matter of record. Note to File - JP Rhein)
============================
By J. Horace Round, taken from "Studies in Peerage and Family History,
Westminster, Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1901, pages 115-146

Of the problems upon which new light is thrown by my Calendar of documents in France relating to English history, none, probably, for the genealogist, will rival in interest the origin of the Stewarts. It has long been known that the Scottish Stewarts and the great English house of Fitz Alan possessed a common ancestor in Alan, the son of Flaald, living under Henry the First. This was established at some length by Chalmers in his _Caledonia_ (1807) on what he declared to be "the most satisfactory evidence."* [*Vol. I, pp. 572-575] According to him, "Alan the son of Flaald, a Norman, acquired the manor of Oswestrie, in Shropshire, soon after the Conquest," and "married the daughter of
Warine, the famous sheriff of Shropshire." Mr Riddell, the well-known Scottish antiquary, followed up the arguments of Chalmers, in 1843, with a paper on the "Origin of the House of Stewart,"* [*_Stewartiana_, pp. 55-70] in which he accepted and enforced the views of Chalmers,
including his theory that Walter Fitz Alan brought with him to Scotland followers from Shropshire and gave them lands there. But research has hitherto been unable to determine the origin of Flaald father of Alan, or even to find, in England, any mention of his name.

No less an authority on feudal genealogy than the late Mr Eyton devoted himself to a special investigation on the subject of Alan "Fitz Flaald,"* [*_History of Shropshire_ (1858), VII. 211-232] and arrived at the conclusion that, after all, he was a grandson of "Banquo, thane of Lochaber,", whose son "Fleance" fled to England. "My belief is," Mr Eyton wrote, "that the son of Fleance was named Alan ... and that he whom the English called Alan Fitz Flaald was the person in question."* [*_Ibid_, p. 227. It is essential to bear in mind that the old Scottish writers made Walter, the first Steward, a son of 'Fleance', wholly _ignoring_ Alan his real father (see p. 119 below). This invalidates their whole story.] He admitted, however, of the priories of Andover, Sele, and Sporle, cells of the Abbey of St. Florent de Saumur, that he could "show a connection between Alan Fitz Flaald or his descendants and each of these cells* [*_Ibid_, p. 219], which suggested an Angevin origin, and for which he could not account. But where he really advanced our knowledge was in showing that Alan Fitz Flaald married, not (as alleged) a daughter of Warine the sheriff, but Aveline daughter of Ernulf de Hesdin, a great Domesday tenant. I have now been able to trace Ernulf to Hesdin (in Picardy) itself, in connection with which his daughter 'Ava' also is mentioned.* [*See Preface to my Calendar, p. xlviii.] In 1874, an anonymous work, _The Noman People_, approached the problem from the foreign side, and adduced evidence to prove that Flaald was a brother of Alan, seneschal of Dol. But there was still not forthcoming any mention of Flaald in England, while the rashness and inaccuracy which marred that book resulted in his being wrongly pronounced a "son of Guienoc." The great pedigree specially prepared a few years ago for the Stuart exhibition by Mr W. A. Lindsay (now Windsor Herald) still began only with Alan son of Flaald, to whom a daughter of Warine the sheriff was assigned as wife. Moreover, in the handsome work on _The Royal House of Stuart_ (1890), which had its origin in that exhibition, Dr. Skelton could only tell us that "there was (if the conclusions of Chalmers are to be accepted) an Alan son of Flathauld, a Norman knight, who soon after the Conquest obtained a gift of broad lands in Shropshire" (p. 5). Alan, we shall find, was not a Norman; the lands he was given were widely scattered; and he did not obtain them "soon after the Conquest.".

The latest authoritative statement on the subject is that, it would seem, of Sheriff Mackay in the _Dictionary of National Biography_ (1896).* [* This passage is found in the biography of the first Stewart king, so that I only lighted upon it after this paper was written. It gave me the clue to Mr. Hewison's book, of which I had not previously heard, but which I have now read just in time to add his results to this paper (24th Jan., 1900).] He tells us, of the House of Stewart, that "Its earlier genealogy is uncertain, but an ingenious and learned, though admittedly in part hypothetical, attempt to trace it to the Banquho of Boece and Shakespeare, Thane of Lochaber, has been recently made by the Rev. J. K. Hewison (_Bute in the Olden Time_ Vol. II, pp. 1-38, Edinburgh, 1895).* [*Vol. XLVIII, p. 344.]"

Mr Hewison's volume opens with the words:

"The origin of the royal house of Stewart has long remained a mystery, perplexing historical students, who feel tantalized at knowing so little concerning the hapless victim of the jealousy of King Macbeth -- Banquo, round whom Shakespeare cast the glamour of undying romance, and to whom the old chroniclers of Scotland traced back the family of Stewart." The author's 'glamour' augurs ill, and in spite of the unique advantage he enjoyed in having access to the late Lord Crawford's MS. collections on the subject, we soon find ourselves wandering, alas, with Alice in Wonderland. "It may be concluded that Walter, the son of Fleadan, son of Banchu, is identical with Walter, son of [A]llan (or Flan), son of Murechach of the Lennox family, if not also with Walter, son of Amloib, son of Duncan of the oher genealogy. Chronology easily permits of the equation of Murdoch, the Maormor of Leven ... with Banchu ... who might have survived even his son Fleance -- we, meantime, only assuming that Fleance was slain in Wales. _Ban-chu_, the pale warrior, would be his complimentary title; the old surname of his family ... also descended to his son, _Flan-chu_, the red or ruddy warrior, known to his Irish kinsmen as Fleadan."

We are surely coming to the _Man-chu_ dynasty. But no. "This Irish form of the name _Fleadan tan_ (i.e. either Fleadan the Tanist or Fleadan the younger) imports a significant idea -- namely, _flead_ ... a feast, which corresponds in signification with _Flaald_
..."

Then there bursts upon us yet another discovery:

"_Fleanchus_ ... is the Latinised form of _Flann-chu_, the Red or Ruddy Dog ... and is also a sobriquet -- the Bloodhound. ... This nomenclature is evidently a reminiscence of the dog-totem or dog-divinity, etc., etc." There remains, however, the standing puzzle* [*See p. 116, note 2, above. It will be seen that to assert, as here, that Alan and 'Fleance' were the same will not overcome this difficulty.] why Walter the first Stewart was made by the old romancers a son of Fleance son of Banquo, though his father was indisputable Alan son of Flaald. One solution offered by our author is that "Ailin or Allan may have become the family name"; but his own view is that

"The native name of Banquo's son would be the common Goidelic one _Flann_, which signifies rosy or fair, and has an equivalent in _Aluinn_, beautiful, fair, to which the word Alan, both in Britanny and Ireland, may be traced."

Thus it was that 'Flann' would become 'Alan' in Britanny, "more especially when, in the vulgar tongue of Dol, the former, denoting a pancake, would sound like a nickname." And if we should still have our doubts, is there not, at Dol, to this day -- "an imposing edifice, built of granite, in the purest Norman style of architecture of the twelfth century, which tradition names 'La maison des Plaids,' and avers was the revenue office and court-house of the archbishops. this name, "the House of the Plaids," is touchingly significant of Fleance with the royal wearers of the tartan ..."

But I really cannot pursue further these "ingenious and learned" new lichts. A dreadful vision of dog-totems, arrayed in the Stewart tartan, and feasting, with fiery visage, on pancakes in the streets of Dol, warns me to leave this realm of wonders and turn to the world in which we live. From "the House of the Plaids" I flee.* [*It is positively the lunch fact that the author so renders the name of the 'Maison des Plaids' here the (Arch)bishops are supposed to have held their pleas ("plaids").]

Fortunately Flaald is a name, for practical purposes, unique; and we need not, therefore, hesitate to recognize in "Float filius Alani dapiferi" who was present (No. 1136) at the dedication of Monmouth; Priory (1101 or 1102) the long-sought missing link. We thus connect him with the fourth, the remaining cell of St. Florent de Saumur in England. But we have yet to account for his appearance as a 'baron' of the lord of Monmouth, William son of Baderon. The best authority on Domesday tenants, Mr. A. S. Ellis confessed that he had failed to trace the lords of Monmouth in Britanny.* [*_Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire_, p. 46.] The key, however, to the whole connection is found in the abbey of St. Florent de Saumur and in its charters calendared in my work. In the latter half of the eleventh century many Bretons of noble birth were led to take the cowl. Among them was William, eldest son of that Rhiwallon, lord of Dol, whom, on the eve of the Norman Conquest, Duke William and Harold of England had relieved when he was besieged by his lord. Rhiwallon's son William, who was followed by his brother John (No. 1116), entered the abbey of St. Florent de Saumur, and became its abbot himself in 1070. Zealous in the cause of the house he ruled, he clearly urged its claims at Dol, receiving not only local gifts, but also, as its chronicle mentions, the endowments it obtained in England. Of the two families with which we are concerned the lords of Monmouth can, by these charters, be traced to __, the neighbourhood of Dol, for William son of Baderon confirms his father's gifts at Epiniac and La Boussac (No. 1134), which places lay together close to Dol. The presence among the witnesses to these charters of a Main or La Boussac and a Geoffrey of Epiniac affords confirmation of the fact. Guihenoc, the founder of the house in England (probably identical with "Wihenocus filius Caradoc de Labocac"),* [*Lobineau, _Histoire de Bretagne_, II, 219] undoubtedly became a monk of St. Florent,* [*_Calendar_, Nos. 1117, 1133] and resigned his English fief to his nephew William (son of his brother Baderon), who is found holding it in Domesday. Some charters were specially selected by me from the _Liber Albus_ of St. Florent (Nos. 1152-4) to illustrate, about the end of the Conqueror's reign, the little group of Dol families who were about to settle in England.* [* It would, no doubt, be a rash conjecture that the "Herveus botellarius" of these charters (Nos. 1153, 1154) was the ancestor of those Herveys, from whom the Butlers of Ireland are descended. But if it should eventually prove to be no mere coincidence, the Butlership of Ireland would have had an origin curiously parallel to the Stewardship of Scotland.] Among the witnesses to one of them are Baderon and his son the Domesday tenant. But the one family we have specially to trace is that which held the office of "Dapifer" at Dol. "Alan Dapifer" is found as a witness, in 1086, to a charter relating to Mezuoit* [*_Lobineau_, p. 250] (a cell of St. Florent, near Dol). He also, as "Alanus Siniscallus," witnessed the foundation charters of that
house (_ante_ 1080) and himself gave it rights at Mezuoit with the consent of "Fledaldus frater ejus," the monks, in return, admitting his brother Rhiwallon to their fraternity.* [*_Ibid_, 137, 138, collated by me with the _Liber Albus_ at Angers.] He appears as a witness with the above "Badero" in No. 1152, and in 1086 as a surety with Ralf de Fougeres (No. 1154). Mentioned in other St. Florent documents,*
[*_Ibid_ 232, 234] he is styled in one, "Dapifer de Dolo"* [*_Ibid_ 310]. And it is as "Alanus dapifer Dolensis" that he took part in the first crusade, 1097* [*_Ordericus Vitalis_ (Societe de l'histoire deFrance), vol. III. 507]. This style is explained in a charter of 1095, recording a gift to Marmoutier by Hamo son of Main, with consent of his lord "Rivallonius dominus Doli castri, filius Johannis rchiepiscopi", in which we read:

"Hoc donum factum est per manum Guarini monachi nostri de Lauda Rigaldi tunc temporis prioris Combornii, testibus his: Alano siniscalco Rivallonii predicti, etc.* [* Transcripts from (Bretagne) cartulary of Marmoutier in MS. Baluze 77, fo. 134, and in MS. lat. 5441 (3) fo. 343. Alan is also brought into conjunction with this Hamo son of Main in No 1152.] His brother's son, Alan fitz Flaald (ancestor, as has been seen, of the Stuarts) also occurs, in these Breton documents, as releasing his rights in the church of "Guguen"* [*Cuguen, near Dol] to Bartholomew abbot of Marmoutier;* [*_Lobineau_, II. 310; MS. lat. 5441 (3) fo. 235] while two charters of Henry I confirming the foundation of Holy Trinity Priory, York, as a cell of Marmoutier, and prior to 1108, contain his name as a witness (No. 1225). Again, a charter of donation to Andover Priory reveals him as present in the New Forest with William son of Baderon and "Wihenocus monachus" (William's uncle) early in the reign of Henry I* [*_Mon. Ang. VI. 993]. It was Alan also who founded Sporle Priory, Norfolk (No. 1149), on land he held there, as another cell of St., H Florent, the Bretons who witness his charter further attesting his origin. Among them is seen Rhiwallon "Extraneus," the founder of the Norfolk family of Le Strange, which, more than five centuries later, was so ardent in its loyalty to Alan's descendants, the Stuart kinds of England.* [*His name has hitherto remained doubtful, and is given as Roland in the _Dictionary of National Biography_

It will have been observed that "Float filius Alani dapiferi" is assumed above to have been the brother, not a son, of the crusader. This assumption is based upon the facts that the crusader's gift at Mezuoit as 'conceded' by his brother 'Fledald,' who was, therefore, his heir at the time, and that his office of "dapifer" at Dol was afterwards held -- a fact hitherto unsuspected -- by descendants of Alan fitz Flaald. The crusader, it must therefore be inferred, left no heir. The sudden rise of Alan fitz Flaald and his evident enjoyment of Henry's favour from the early years of the reign, were thought by Mr. Eyton to be due to his (fabulous) Scottish origin. But it might, with some probability, be suggested that his Breton origin accounts for the facts. When Henry was besieged in Mont St. Michel, he is known to have had Breton followers ("aggregatis Britonibus") and, after his surrender, "per Britanniam transiit, Britonibus qui sibi solummodo adminiculum contulerant, gratias reddidit" (Ordericus)* [* Elsewhere, Orderic observes that Henry, "dum esset junior ... ut externus, exterorum, id est Francorum et _Britonum_ auxilia quaerere coactus est."]. Dol was his nearest town in Britanny, and Alan may thus, like Richard de Reviers, have served him across the sea, when he was but a younger son.

It would seem, indeed, although the fact has been hitherto overlooked, that a group of families whom Henry had known when lord of the Cotentin were endowed by him when king with fiefs in England. In addition to Alan fitz Flaald, founder of the house of Stewart, and to Richard de Reviers, ancestor of the earls of Devon* [*He is found, seemingly, in Domesday, holding a single lordship], the Hayes of Haye-du-Puits were given the Honour of Halnaker (Sussex), the Aubignys, afterwards earls of Arundel, obtained from him a fief in Norfolk; the two St. John brothers, from St. Jean-le-Thomas, were granted lands in Oxfordshire and Sussex, and founded another famous house* [*See my paper on "The Families of St. John and of Port" in _Genealogist_, July 1899, p. 1. And compare p. 66 above]; while the family of Paynel also, sprung from the Cotentin, owed to Henry lands in England.

Among the documents calendered in my volume are Papal bulls to the abbey of St. Florent, ranging from 1146 to 1187 (Nos. 1124-9), which suggest that Alan's son William, who acquired by marriage Clun castle, must have bestowed its church of St. George, with all its dependent churches, on Monmouth Priory, a fact hitherto unsuspected. Mr Eyton thought that the gift of this church to Wenlock Priory by his widow (_tem._ Ric. I) represents the first occasion on which it is mentioned.

Alan fitz Flaald has hitherto been credited with two well-known sons, William and Walter, ancestors respectively of the Fitzalans and the Stewarts* [*A third son, "Simon", is claimed as the ancestor of the Boyds, and is assigned to him, with William and Walter, in Mr. Lindsay's great Stewart pedigree, the standard authority on the subject. But although a Simon 'brother' of Walter occurs as a witness in the Paisley cartulary, his name is very low on the list, and he may have been only a uterine or even a bastard brother. The Empress Maud's bastard brothers are styled her 'brothers' in her charters, nor was this unusual.]. He had, however, another son, who needs to be specially dealt with. This was Jordan, his heir in Britanny, and, apparently, at Burton in England. Mr. Eyton knew of his existence, but could state little about him. In No. 1220 we find him, as a "valiant and illustrious man," making restitution to Marmoutier in 1130, with his wife Mary and his sons Jordan and Alan. In the same year we detect him entered on the English Pipe Roll in several places, though one of the entries suggests his Breton connection* [* Rot. Pip. 31 Hen. I., p. 11]. He may safely be identified with that "Jordanus dapifer" who witnessed a charter to Mont St. Michel in 1128-29 (No. 722); and consequently he held the family office. We find him also in a St. Florent charter,* [*_Lobineau_, II. 232] and in one of Marmoutier* [*_Ibid_ 146]. Of his sons, Jordan restored to the priory of St. Florent at Sele the mill at Burton given it by Alan fitz Flaald* [*"Jordanus filius Jordani filius Alani hominibus suis de Burt[ona]. Sciatis me reddidisse monachis S. Florentii de Salmur molendinum de Burt[ona] sicut habuerunt tempore Alani filii Flealdi et tempore Jordani patris mei" (original charter at Magdalen College)], but was, probably, soon succeeded by his brother Alan, who confirmed to a priory of Marmoutier (No. 1221) another gift of his grandfather, Alan fitz Flaald, at Burton, mentioning his wife Joan and his son Jordan* [*It was either this Jordan or his grandfather who, as "Jordanus filius Alani siniscalli," confirmed a gift to Combourg (MS. lat. 5441 (3) 437)]. This Alan, who meets us also, as his father's son, in a Savigny charter (No. 824), is identical with that "Alanum filium quondam Jordani Dolensem senescallum," who confirmed the grant of his grandfather Alan (fitz Flaald) at Cuguen, and himself added the church of Tronquet* [*MS. lat. 12,878, fo. 248d., and _Lobineau_, II. 310] about 1160* [*The gift is wrongly assigned in _Gallia Christiana_ (XIV.1074) to 1133-1147, as being made before Hugh archbishop of Tours. The prelate was Hugh "archbishop" of Dol, whose date was 1155-1161 (_Ibid_. 1050).] We have further in No. 1013 the confirmation by Alexander III of his gifts to the abbey of Tiron, including the church of Sharrington and three others in England. He attested a charter of the lord of Dol in 1145* [*_Lobineau_, II. 147] and, in or about 1165, a royal charter at Winchester concerning a release by his fellow-countryman Geoffrey son of Oliver de Dinan* [*_Mon. Ang.,_ VI. 486]. He also leads the list of witnesses in a dispute about the abbey of Vieuville (in the parish of Epiniac) in 1167, as "Alanus filius Jordani dapifer."* [*_Lobineau_, II. 308; MS. lat. 5476, fol. 98d]. His wife Joan and daughter Olive were benefactors to the abbey of Vieuville for his soul.* [*"Johanna uxor Alani dapiferi de Dolo et filia ipsius Oliva." _Lobineau_, II. 310; MS. lat. 5476, fo. 91.] With this clue we return to England, and detect the heiress of the Stewards of Dol in that Olive, daughter of Alan "filius Jordani," who in 1227 was impleaded by one of her Breton tenants -- his father Iwan had been infeoffed by her own father Alan -- at Sharrington, Norfolk. The record of the suit gives us the name of Alan's mother, Mary, mentioned as we have seen, in No. 1220.* [* _Bracton's Note-book_, III. 620. Compare 'Feet of Fines' (Pipe Roll Society), II. 160.] In the middle, therefore, of the 12th century, this family flourished simultaneously in Scotland, England, and BritannySCII.

FIRST GENERATION
1. ALAN, Dapifer (Dolensis)
SECOND GENERATION
2. ALAN, son of #1, Dapifer Dolensis occurs in Britanny ante 1080 and in 1086; a leader in first Crusade 1097
3. FLAALD, son of #1, occurs at Monmouth 1101 or 1102 'frater' (et 'filius') Alani Dapiferi
4. RHIWALLON, son of #1, Monk of St. Florent
THIRD GENERATION
5. ALAN Fitz Flaald, son of #3, Founder of Sporle Priory
FOURTH GENERATION
6. JORDAN Fitz Alan, son of #5, occurs 1129-30, Benefactor of Sele Priory. Occurs also in Britanny as "Dapifer" (Dolensis).
7. WILLIAM Fitz Alan, son of #5, Founder of Haughmond Priory ob. [died] 1160, (Benefactor of Monmouth Priory)
8. WALTER Fitz Alan, son of #5, "Dapifer Regis Scotiae" ob. 1177, Founder of Paisley Abbey
FIFTH GENERATION
9. ALAN Fitz Jordan, son of #6, Dapifer Dolensis, Founder of Tronquet 1155-1161, living 1167* [* Among the obits at Dol we find that of another daughter of Alan fitz Jordan: "Kal. Sept. obiit Aelicia uxor G[uillelmi] Espine filia Alani Jordanis quae dedit episcopo et capitulo Dol ... pratum senescalli,", etc. (Gaigneres' Transcript of Cartulary, MS. lat. 5211 C). A charter of her husband William Spina, son of Hamo, confirms the donations made to Vieuville "de feodo Aeliz uxoris mee filie Alani Dolensis senescalli ... concedente Alano filio nostro" (MS. lat. 5476, fo. 85). His father Hamo Spina occurs immediately after "Alan filius Jordanis dapifer" in the above letter of 1167 (_Ib._ fo. 98d). As we read of "Gaufridus Spina Doli senescallus" (_Ib._ fo. 91d) it would seem that the Dol office was inherited by the Spina family, and the English estates by the other daughter.]
10. JORDAN Fitz Jordan, son of #6
11. ALAN Fitz Alan, son of #7, ob. infans
12. WILLIAM Fitz Alan, son of #7, _a quo _Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel
13. ALAN The Steward, son of #8, "Senescallus Regis Scotiae"

A chronological difficulty is created by Mr. Eyton's statement that Alan fitz Flaald was "dead ante 1114", for his son (it will be seen) the
Steward of Scotland lived till 1177. It is desirable, therefore, to examine his authority for this date. Dugdale was acquainted with a
confirmation by Sybil, lady of Wolston (Warwickshire), of a gift by her mother Adeliza to Burton Abbey of land in Wolston. In his _History of
Warwickshire_ (p. 33) he held that she was probably a daughter of Alan fitz Flaald, because Alan was "enfeoft of this Lordship" before her.
Mr. Eyton accepted Dugdale's conclusion, and therefore identified her mother 'Adeliza' as that 'Avelina' de Hesdin, whom he had so skilfully shown to be the wife of Alan. Further, as the land _ex hypethesi_ belonged to Alan himself, and yet was given by her, she must, he held, have been a widow at the time of the gift; and as the abbey was already in possession at least as early as 1114, Alan, he concluded, must have been dead before that date.* [*_History of Shropshire_, VII, 221-223, 228]. These conclusions created difficulties, but, on Mr. Eyton's great authority, they have been duly accepted.* [*_Burton Cartulary_, Ed. Wrottesley (Salt Arch. Collections, 1884), pp. 32, 33.] Yet the whole edifice rests on Dugdale's careless reading of a document in the Burton Cartulary.* [*_Ibid_. p. 33 _bis_]. That document does not connect Alan fitz Flaald with Wolston.

The facts are these. In Domesday the three Warwickshire manors of Church Lawford, Wolston, and Stretton-on-Dunsmore are entered together (fo. 239) as held of Earl Roger (of Shrewsbury) by that 'Rainaldus', whom the historian of Shropshire so brilliantly identifies with Renaud de Bailleul* [*_History of Shropshire_, VII. 206 et seq.]. We find him, accordingly as "Rainaldus de Bailoul,"* [* See my Calendar, p. 202] confirming in No. 578 the gifts at Wolston and Church Lawford of his own under-tenant, a certain Hubert Baldran. Another of the charters in my Calendar (No. 579) proves that this Hubert (not Alan fitz Flaald), was the father of Sybil, lady of 'Wlfrichestone' (Wolston), from whom we started. Thus Adeliza, mother of Sybil, and wife of Hubert Baldran, was quite distinct from "Avelina" wife of Alan fitz Flaald, with whom Mr. Eyton rashly identified her.* [*She has been even further promoted in the British Museum Catalogue of Stowe MSS., where, in the abstract of the original deed (Stow charter 103), she is strangely identified with queen Adeliza, widow of Henry I.] Alan may have lived, and probably did, beyond 1114; and his gift at Stretton to Burton Abbey was made after he was placed in the shoes (as Mr. Eyton has shown) of Renaud de Bailleul.

We have thus seen how a single charter may prove of great importance, not only in establishing the true facts, but in demolishing erroneous conclusions with the corollaries based thereon. Within the last few weeks there has unexpectedly been revived that view of the origin of the Stewarts which had long, one thought, been abandoned. As the whole story is most curious, and has, moreover, an
important moral, I propose to discuss it in some detail. The pedigree of the Stuarts "of Hartley Mauduit," who hold a baronetcy dating from 1660, began in _Burke's Peerage_, so recently as last year, with Sir Nicholas Stuart the first baronet, "son of Simeon Stuart, Esq." But now, in this year of grace 1900, -- "A more thorough revision than usual has been possible ... To the laborious researches and experienced counsel of my brother, Mr. H. Farnham Burke, Somerset Herald, the genealogical and heraldic value of this work is much indebted and is gratefully acknowledged _(sic)_."

The "laborious researches" of Somerset Herald have indeed developed the Stuart pedigree, thanks to those "invaluable documents the Heralds' Visitations, documents of high authority and value."* [* Preface to Burke's _Landed Gentry_, Ed. 1898.]

"The illustrious ancestry of this family is given fully in the Visitations of Cambridge _(sic)_, 1575 and 1619, in which is traced their descent from the Royal Stuarts. "ANDREW STUART, younger son of Alexander Stuart, 2nd son of Walter Stuart, seneschal of Scotland, great-grandson of Walter, 1st high steward of Scotland, grandson of Banquo Lord of Lochaber. He m. the daughter of James Bethe, and had an only son. "ALEXANDER STUART, to whom Charles VI of France granted an honourable augmentation of his arms." And so the pedigree proceeds through another eight generations down to the first baronet.

Dear old 'Banquo,' "whom we miss"!* [*_Macbeth_] What a pleasure it is to welcome him back among us once more, and to know that he, and not Flaald, was the founder of the house of Stuart on the unimpeachable authority of the Heralds and their 'Visitations'! It is true that, according to the "Royal Lineage"* [*_Burke's Peerage_, 1900, pp. cliii-cliv] contained in the same volume, it was not descended from
Banquo at all, and that the "above Alexander Stuart, 2nd son of Walter Stuart", had no existence; but these are details with the editor, doubtless, will see to in his next edition. It is also true that the new pedigree would at once make Sir Simeon Stuart heir-male of "the Royal Stuarts", an honour foolishly claimed by sundry Scottish families.* [*see p. 89 above.] Let us hope that Somerset Herald will
inform Lyon King of Arms that his "laborious researches" have decided this long-contested question.

But, seriously speaking, what is the origin of the new descent, which, this year, makes its appearance in _Burke's Peerage_? Well, the story is, or ought to be, familiar to all genealogists. For, owing to Oliver Cromwell's mother having been a member of this family, his Stuart descent was alluded to by Carlyle, which has given genealogists the opportunity of making merry at his expense. The alleged descent was, for several years, discussed in the recognised organ of genealogical research;* [*_The Genealogist_ (N.S.) vols. I (1884), II, III, VIII, X (1893)] but of this discussion Somerset Herald is, no doubt, ignorant.

So far back, indeed, as 1878 the very interesting heraldic glass of which I am enabled to give an illustration was exhibited to the Archaeological Institute, and that well-known Scottish authority, Mr. Joseph Bain,* [*Editor of the 'Calendar of documents relating to Scotland,' the 'Hamilton Papers,' the 'Calendar of letters and papers referring to the Borders,' etc. etc.] discussed the whole story thereon
before it. He then observed of the alleged grant by "Charles VI of France," to which Somerset Herald appeals.

"In M. Michel's _Les Ecossais en France_, published in 1862, he gives a drawing of this very design, and the text of the asserted grant by Charles VI of France in the fifth year of his reign, conferring the strange coat of arms on Sir Alexander Stuart on account of the merits of his father Andrew.  
(Fledaldus), Flaald Seneschal of Dol (I0205)
 
516 THE PALATINATE

The Palatinate was made up of two states, one known as the Lower Palatinate and the other as the Upper Palatinate. The Lower Pfalz am Rhein, or Palatinate on the Rhein was situated on both sides of the river as was bounded by Wurttemburg, Alsace, Lorraine, Treves and Hesse. The Upper, or Ober Pfalz, on the east, was surrounded by Bohemia, Bavaria and Nuremburg.

THE GREAT "PALATINE" EMIGRATION OF 1709

"Historical background material on the Palatines has been found in the 17th and 18th century church books of the towns and villages where the emigrants resided. After recording a baptism, marriage, or burial entry in their church books, the pastors would comment on important matters of the day affecting their congregation. The church books often reflected the devastation and havoc caused by the repetitive wars fought on German territory - a major factor leading to the 1709 emigration.

The British government exploited the Palatines' dissatisfaction by waging an advanced and clever public relations campaign extolling the virtues of life in the new world which also fueled the fires of emigration.

The year 1709 began with such severe and cold weather and lasted such a long time that even the oldest people could not remember ever having experienced such a winter; not only were many birds frozen and found dead, but also many domesticated livestock in their sheds. Many trees froze, and the winter grain was also very frozen. About February or March 1709, large groups began leaving their German homes for Rotterdam and thence to England. The trip down the Rhein to Holland took anywhere from four to six weeks. The Palatines encamped outside Rotterdam were in a miserable condition, and shacks covered with reeds were the only shelter they had from the elements. The Palatines continued to arrive in Holland in increasing numbers at the rate of nearly a thousand per week.

The Palatines arriving in England beginning in May 1709 continued to have problems there. London was not so large a city that 11,000 alien people could be poured into it conveniently without good notice or thorough planning. Of the 13,000 Palatines who reached London in 1709, only an estimated quarter came to New York. The idea of sending the Palatines to New York sprang from a proposal sponsored by Governor-Elect Robert Hunter of New York, probably made originally by the Earl of Suderland. It was their thought that the 1709ers be used in the manufacture of naval stores (i.e. tar and pitch) from the pine trees dotting the Hudson Valley and thus earn their keep in the colony. Also a strong Palatine presence in the new world would act as a buffer against the French in Canada and strengthen the Protestant cause in British America.

Governor-Elect Hunter of New York accompanied the Palatines who boarded ships for New York in December 1709, but the convoy really never left England until April of 1710. The German emigrants sailed on eleven boats. The voyage was a terrible one for the Palatines: they were crowded together on the small vessels, suffered from vermin and poor sanitation, and were forced to subsist on unhealthy food. Many became ill, and the entire fleet was was ravaged by typhus which eventually caused the deaths of many passengers.

The Palatines who arrived in the summer of 1710 found that colonial New York was hardly the paradise proposed back in Germany. The New York City Council protested the arrival of 2,500 disease-laden newcomers within their jurisdiction and demanded the Germans stay in tents on Nutten (Governor's) Island offshore. About 470 Palatines died on the voyage from England and during their first month in New York. Many families were broken up at this time. Governor Hunter's record of his payments for the subsistence of the 847 Palatine families 1710 - 1712 survives today as the so-called Hunter Subsistence Lists.

On September 29, 1710, Governor Hunter entered into an agreement with Robert Livingston, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to purchase a tract of 6,000 acres on the east side of the Hudson for the purpose of settling Palatines there to manufacture naval stores. In October, many of the Palatines began going up the Hudson River, clearing ground, and building huts on the Livingston Tract. The Palatines grew increasingly dissatisfied with their status, which bordered on serfdom, and strongly demanded the lands promised them in London. Their rebellion was put down by the Governor, who disarmed the Germans and put them under the command of overseers and a Court of Palatine Commissioners, who treated them again as the Queens's hired servants. Hunter lost financial backing in his efforts to support the Germans and had to withdraw the subsistence in September 1712. Having been left to their own resources, the more restless and adventurous of the Germans stole away in late 1712 to the Schoharie Valley, which at one time was a land considered for Palatine settlement. They bought lands from the Indians there. Seven distinct villages were settled in the Schoharie region. The Palatines had not been permitted to bring their Hudson Valley tools with them to Schoharie, so they fashioned ingenious substitutes: branches of a tree for a fork used in hay making, a shovel from a hollowed-out log, and a maul from a large knot of wood - examples of their determination and imagination. By the time of their naturalization in 1715, the 1709ers were spread out in colonial New York to a large extent.

Troubles with the New York colonial government continued as Hunter made plans to clear the Palatines from their Schoharie settlements. Finally, in 1722/23, Hunter's successor, Governor William Burnet, purchased land in the Mohawk Valley for some of the Palatines. About this time, fifteen families left the Schoharie Valley to settle in the Tulpehocken region of present-day Berks County, Pennsylvania. (Note - Johann Michael Emerich was in this group) Others continued to follow, and by 1730 the 1709er emigrant families were found in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Connecticut, and the Carolinas. (Source - The Palatine Families of New York by Henry Z. Jones, Picton Press, Camden, Maine, excerpts from the Introduction Section)

"The German Element in the United States", Albert Bernhardt Faust, 1909, contains a history of the 1709 flight of the Germans in the Palatinate to England. Estimates vary from 13,000 to 30,000; 3,800 went to the Province of Munster in Ireland, 600 went to Carolina in America where they founded Newbern near the mouth of the Neuse River and 3,000 went to New york.

JOHANN MICHAEL EMERICH IN NEW YORK

"The Palatine families of New York were recorded alphabetically in the Ledger Section of the Hunter Subsistence Lists; on these rolls, each family was assigned a certain number from 1 to 847. Johann Michael Emerich was assigned number 165.

Johann Michael Emerich made his initial appearance on the Hunter Lists October 4, 1710 with two persons over 10 years of age in the family. (The Palatine Families of New York, Volume II, by Henry Z. Jones, Jr., page 1169 quotes a file in the Wiesbaden Archives, about 331 R 3, Hessen-Darmstadt, that 'several emigrants who eventually found their way to colonial New York were Henrich Emrich's widow {mother of Johann Michael Emerich} from Delkenheim, along with Georg Henrich Stubenrauch, paid 20 G. for freedom from serfdom in 1709. Additionally, The Registers of Reeds's Church by Frederick S. Weiser and Vernon Nelson, states 'It is believed that Johann Michael Emerich, commonly called Michael was a native of the Commune of Epstein, Darmstadt and that he was the son of the widow, Anna Maria Emerich, who in the winter of 1710, lived somewhere on the west side of the Hudson River with a daughter, age between nine and 15 years of age.) The household diminished to one person over 10 years of age September 29, 1711, was noted with two persons over 10 years of age and one person under 10 years on December 24, 1711, (Johann Michael married Elisabetha on December 18, 1711. Did she have a child with Conrad Krantz?) and then was registered with two persons over 10 years of age for all of 1712. Jho. Michel Emrich: 1 man and 1 woman were in Ulster County in 1710/11 (West Camp Census).

Johann Michael Emrich and Elisabetha with two children were at Neu-Ansberg (Hartmans-dorf) about 1716/17 in the Mowhawk Valley, New York according to the Simmendinger Register, by Ulrich Simmendinger, 1934, Reprint, Baltimore. According to the listing of their children in Family Tree Maker file there were three children born before 1717. (Note to File by J.P. Rhein)

The Book of Names - Kocherthal Records, page 43, shows a marriage performed by Joshua Kocherthal on December 18, 1709 of Johann Michael Emerich of Delkenheim, commune Epstein Darmstadt and Elizabetha Krantz, widow of the late Conrad Krantz of the commune of Zigenheim in Hessia. (The Evangelical Church of Ziegenheim, Germany say they have no record of a marriage of Conrad Krantz.) Page 24, in the year 1712 shows a baptism on December 18, of Anna Catharina, born December 16, child of Johan Michel and Elizabetha Emmerich; sponsors Wilhelm Kuester and Anna Catharina Stubenrauch.

Johann Michael Emerich would have been about 28 years of age in the year 1710 and probably was married at that time. Does the initial reference on the Hunter Lists of October 4, 1710 refer to his wife and a child of which we have no further evidence or does it refer to his mother who would have been about 57 years of age and his sister Christina Elizabeth Emerich, who would have been about 18 years of age at that time? Did his mother then die prior to September 29, 1711? What happend to his sister; was she the individual appearing on the December 24, 1711 list or was this a child of Elisabeth and her deceased husband Conrad Krantz?)

In the DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF NEW YORK by E. B. O'Callaghan, Page 569 shows the following:

"Statement of heads of Palaten familes and number of persons in both towns on ye east side of Hudson's River."

Winter 1710
John Mchel Emrich I man I woman
Ana Mar Emrichin I woman & I maid 9 to 15

COLLECTION OF THIRTY THOUSAND NAMES, EMIGRANTS IN PENNSYLVANIA by Prof 1. Daniel Rupp, Page 446

"Names of male Palatines above 21 years old in Livingston Manor, N. Y. in the winter 1710 and summer 1711

John Michael

From THE BOOK OF NAMES by MacWethy
"Palatine Heads of Families from Governor Hunters'Ration Lists"
Emmerich, Johan Michael
Emrichin, Anna Maria Both West Camp
Page 123
Statement of Heads of Palatine Families on West side of Hudson River Winter 1710
Johann Nfichel Emrich - he is listed as
1 man
1 woman
Total of 2 persons
Emrichin, Anna Mar - listed as
1 woman
1 maid 9 to 15
Total 2 persons

From EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY PALATINE EMIGRATION by Knittle (page 284)
New York Subsistance List
17101712
Emmerich, Johannes3 adults 2 adults &
I child under 10
Emmerich, Johannes Michael2 adults 2 adults

JOHANN MICHAEL EMERICH IN PENNSYLVANIA

"In 1722, when visiting Albany, Governor Keith of Pennsylvania invited the Schoharie Palatines to move to his province. Early in 1723, 15 families of about 50-60 people cut a trail from Schoharie about 40 miles to the headwaters of the Susquehanna River; there they made canoes (probably dug out of chestnut logs) and rafts and shoved off on their hard, exciting journey, past arrow-shooting Indians to the mouth of Swatara Creek, where Middletown now stands below Harrisburg; then up that creek and a trek across a gravel ridge into the Tulpehocken Valley, then in Lancaster County and later Berks County. Their horses and cattle were driven by a shorter overland route (too difficult for women and children), down the Delaware River and then across to Tulpehocken. When this first group moved, the outstanding leader to the little party in the spring of 1723 devolved largely from the five Rieth brothers, particularly the eldest, John Leonhart" (Source - Reed Pioneers - Dressler-Tressler Family History Genealogy, Loysville, Pennsylvania)

Pennsylvania Deeds Book A, Volume 2, page 241 dated 10 October 1752 notes that Michael Emerich died leaving Children, Johann Jacob, (eldest son), Balthsar, Leonhard, Johann Adam, Johannes and Catharina Margaretha who married Andrew (or Peter) Creister. Balthas, Leonhard, Johan Adam, and Johannes Emrich confirmed together Quasimodogeniti: 1745 (Tulpehocken Church book)

"From 1708 to 1709 there was a large Palatine migration from Germany, via England, to New York, settling principally in the Schoharie and Hudson Valleys. But conditions in the New York Province were unsatisfactory, and in 1717 first a small group, then in 1723 a larger group of Palatines moved from the Schoharie region to Pennsylvania and settled in the Tulpehocken Valley in what is now Berks County. they were joined by 50 families in 1729, led by Conrad Weiser, and 33 families in 1733." (Source - Pages From the Past, Palatines to America Publications Plus, 1992, Number 2)

"In the year 1709, December 25th, about 1,000 Germans left their country and arrived in New York on June 14, 1710. In the following winter about one-half of them perished and about 150 families left late in autumn or the fore-part of winter for Schoharie Valley, to escape the certainty of perishing in the year 1712. They pushed their way through a trackless wilderness and snow, carrying their belongings and used sled which they pulled themselves. They were three weeks making the trip to Schoharie Valley, where they located and stayed until the year 1723.

They had trouble with England concerning the titles of their land which they vacated that year and emigrated into Pennsylvania and settled in Tulpehocken Township and Bethel, settling that country 10 miles west of Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

Among this number was Michael Emerick. In the year 1727, Christopher Leschner supervised the building of the first church known as Zion Lutheran Church or the old Reed church. It was built of logs and made strong, a place underneath to store arms and ammunition so as it could be a fort. In the year 1729, they petitioned the government at Philadelphia for a road out from this church and Michael Emerick's name is on the petition.

Michael Emerick bought 155 acres of land from Casper Wistar and his wife Catina on the 5th day of May 1742 which Caspar Wistar had bought in 1741, a year previous from Thomas Penn one of the five sons of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. Adam Christopher and John Reed (Rieth) in Germany donated seven acres of land for the church grounds and in addition another seven acres was given by the proprietor of Plumpton Manor, John Page, whose landed bounded Michael Emerick's on one side, according to Michael's deed, which shows that Michael's farm was not far from the old Reed church." (Source - Taken from notes prepared by Fred McKinney of Sligo, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 1930's)

THE LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT OF JOHANN MICHAEL EMERICH
TULPEHOCKEN THE 10 OF JUNE 1743
In the name of God, Amen. Whereas I am yet in good health and perfect understanding. Considering I am a mortal man will therefore put my house in order as it shall be after I am dead.

First, I recommend my soul to my God and Maker and my body to the earth to a happy resurrection.

My will is that my wife Elizabeth Emerich and Michael Rith with Hennan Walborn shall be my Executors to execute what is herein written.

The same power I have had over what was mine the same power I give to my wife Elizabeth to do with as I have done as long as she continues unmarried but if she marries again she shall have her third part and no division shall be made till my youngest child is of age and then shall my wife have her third part if she continues a widow. And I will that all my children shall have equal share except my deceased daughter's child Catrina Leitner, I give her ten pounds because they took the child to them. If one of the children should be disobedient to the mother against the law of nature and the country, then the mother shall have the power to take that child's share and divide it among the rest. And my youngest son shall take possession of the plantation if he is able to pay the rest of the children and the mother their share and if the mother should like it to live with the son that has the plantation then she shall take her seat in the house and my two youngest sons shall have four pounds each more than the rest because the eldest had their assistance in improving their plantations. This is my last will and testament which I have signed and with my seal do certify.

Johann Michael Emerich (Seal)
Also signed by witnesses

Michael Sheffer

Johannes Forer

Johann Philip Meurer

in Tulpehocken in Lancaster County July 31, 1744 personally appeared Michael Sheffer and Johan Philip Meurer witnesses to the foregoing.

OTHER

The following excerpts were taken from an article in The New York Times, December 5, 1999, describe "The Good Life in Colonial Pennsylvania".

"From 1681, when Charles II of England granted William Penn the charter for Pennsylvania, to the mid 18th century, the region grew from a sparsely populated Dutch and Swedish settlement into a large, sophisticated mercantile community led by English Quakers. Penn lured tens of thousands of English and European immigrants to the colony with his promises of religious freedom and personal liberty. Pennsylvania was a very distinctive place, the scholar Richard S. Dunn writes '...because it was the only British colony in America founded on truly visionary principles'. It was the only pacifist colony, with no armed forces or military defenses, and it was the only colony committed to peace with the Indians.

Most of what has been written is about the 1760's, the Revolutionary War period and after, Jack L. Lindsey, Curator of American Decorative Arts at the Philadelphia Museum said. 'I wanted to examine the tradition of early patronage in Philadelphia.' Mr. Lindsey traces the development of the arts in Philadelphia and the surrounding Colony of Pennsylvania (which included part of what is today Delaware and New Jersey). First he tracked the colony's phenomenal growth. In 1681 four ships arrived with 1,200 people. By 1690 there were 3,000 people. by 1705 the population was 8,000; by 1720, 45,000. By the 1720's Philadelphia was the second biggest city in the colonies.

Penn did not stay in the colony for long, but it thrived without him. Philadelphia had everything needed to be a mercantile community, Mr. Lindsey said; good land, a tidal river and a deep port. It had oak to build ships, excess wheat and livestock, and an industrious populace. The Quakers were conservative, savy business people who saw the colony as an investment. Philadelphia's first major wharf, which was 300 feet long, was built in 1681. By 1690 there were 30 such wharves, Mr. Lindsey noted. The city's merchants would go to Jamaica and Barbados and sell grain, flour and preserved pork. There they bought rum, sugar and mahogany and sailed to England, where they bought textiles, fine furniture, silver and porcelains to sell in the colonies. It was,an enormously lucrative system. Ships could sell their contents and realize a seven-to-one profit, Mr. Lindsay said.

By 1690 Philadelphia already had a reputation as a good place for artisans to find work. Most emigrated from Europe, some from colonial ports like Boston or New York. Mr. Lindsey found records of 172 woodworkers active between 1730 and 1761. He said there were 60 silversmiths there by 1740.

Pennsylvania was the fastest growing colony in 18th century North America, Mr. Dunn, writes. The Scotch-Irish from northern Ireland (James Galbraith arrived in 1718), the Catholic Irish from southern Ireland and the Germans from the Rhine region (Johann Michael Emmerich arrived in Colonial New York in 1710 and came to Colonial Pennsylvania in 1723). More than 40,000 Germans and 30,000 Irish sailed to Philadelphia between 1726 and 1755. There seemed to be plenty of work. All the immigrant groups farmed and worked in shipbuilding. The Germans wove linen and wool and became ironsmiths. The highly trained French Huguenots, who fled France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, fashioned silver services.

Prosperity and expansion set the stage for widespread support of the arts at almost every Ievel of society. The desire for stylish luxuries fueled the demand for imported goods and inspired both urban and rural artisans to develop the skills to rival foreign craftsmanship.

The settlers' ingenuity was impressive. Casar Wister, a German immigrant who was endly with Benjamin Franklin, opened a brass button factory in 1717, then created a glassworks in 1739. In 1730 William Branson established a furnace to make cast-iron stoves, and firebacks. Furniture makers apprenticed with Englished cabinetmakers from Boston or London. learned how to combine fancy mahogany from the West Indies with local, humbler woods like poplar, cedar or pine. They made document boxes , spice boxes, chests for textiles, high chests, dressing tables, tea tables and, eventually, tall case clocks. There were a few makers of ceramics. Potters made red ware for cooking and storage vessels, as well as some stoneware. (Note to file by J.P. Rhein)

The following paragraphs contain accounts of the Palatine emigration by other authors and researchers and I have elected to enter them here in order to preserve as complete an analysis of that emigration and our ancestors part in it. (Note to file by J.P. Rhein)

The first home of many of the 1710 Palatines was on the land of the Livingston family which is in now Columbia County. From here many left for the Schoharie and Mohawk River Valleys, which is in now Ulster County. Many of the 1710 Palatines settled on the West side of the Hudson River.

"In December 1709, several thousand refugees from the Palatinate region of Germany set sail from London, arriving in New York Harbor in the summer of 1710. This was the single largest migration to the New World in one sailing up to this time. Upon their arrival, the Palatines, many of them suffering from typhus, were quarantined on Governors Island. The colonial authorities erected huts to house the refugees, food was provided, and special courts of justice were established to safeguard their interests. Over 470 Palatines died either on the voyage or during the first month on the Island; more than 250 of them were buried there. These emigrants, fleeing war, hunger and the hard life of feudal Europe, first set foot in the New World on Governors Island. The Palatine refugees were later resettled on the estate of Robert Livingston, on the banks of the Hudson River, in what are now Columbia and Green Counties, New York." (Source - The Palatine Immigrant, Volume XXII, No. 3, ISSN 0884-5735, June 1997, page 120 - Capital University Box 101, Columbus, Ohio 43209-2394)

"That in the year 1709, the Palatines and other Germans, being invited to come into England about four thousand of them were sent to New York in America, of whom about 1700 died on board, or at their landing in that Province by unavoidable sickness. That before they went on board they were promised, those remaining alive should have forty acres of land and five pounds sterling a head, besides clothes, tools, utensils and other necessities to husbandry to be given on their arrival in America. That on landing they were quartered in tents, and divided into six companies, having each a Captain of their own nation, with a promise of an allowance of fifteen pounds per annum to each commander. That afterwards they were removed on lands belonging to Mr. Livingstone, where they erected small houses for shelter during the winter seasons. That in the Spring following they were ordered into the woods to make pitch and tar, where they lived about two years; but the country not being fit to raise any considerable quantity of naval stores, they were commanded to build, to clear and improve ground belonging to a private person." (Source - America On Line: ifinlaw, Pennsylvania Dutch Genealogy List, April 1997)

"Johann Michael Emerich married Elisabetha Krantz, widow of Conrad Krantz on December 18, 1711. (Source - The Palatine Immigrant,Volume XXII, No. 3, ISSN 0884-5735, June, 1997)

The following oaths, taken by Palatines in the Province of Pennsylvania, were copied from the book "Pennsylvania German Pioneers".

"We subscribers, natives and late inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine & places adjacent, having transported ourselves and families into this Province of Pennsylvania, a Colony subject to the Crown of Great Britain, in hopes and expectation of finding a retreat & peaceable settlement therein, do solemnly promise & engage, that we will be faithful & bear true allegiance to his present Majesty King George the Second, and his successors, Kings of Great Britain, and will be faithful to the Proprietor of this Province; And that we will demean ourselves peaceably to all His said Majesties subjects, and strictly observe & conform to the Laws of England and of this Province, to the utmost of our power and best of our understanding."

Declaration of Fidelity and Abjuration

"I....do solemnly & sincerely promise & declare that I will be true & faithful to King George the Second and do sincerely and truly profess
testify & declare that I do from my heart abhor, detest & renounce as impious & heretical that wicked doctrine & position that princes
excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any authority of the See of Rome may be deposed or murthered by their subjects or any other whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign prince person prelate state or potentate hath or ought to have any power jurisdiction superiority preeminence or authority ecclesiastical or spiritual within the realm of Great Britain or Dominions thereto belonging."

Second oath:

"I...do solemly, sincerely and truly acknowledge, profess testify & declare that King George the Second is lawful & rightful King of the Realm of Great Britain & all others his Dominions & countries thereunto belonging, and I do solemnly & sincerely declare that I believe the person pretending to be Prince of Wales during the life of the late King James and since his decease pretending to be and taking upon himself the style and title of King of England by the name of James the Third...has any right & title whatsoever to the Crown of the Realm of Great Britain. And I do renounce & refuse any allegiance & obedience to him, etc."
 
Emerich, Johann Michael (I0032)
 
517 The population of Clarion County in 1860 was 24,988 and approximately 3,000 served with the Union Army. (Source- "History of Clarion County, Pennsylvania", A. J. Davis, Syracuse, N. Y., D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1887)

Anthony McKinney was 30 years of age when the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861. He and his wife and family resided in Porter Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. Occupation was laborer. I believe that he also worked on the farm of his parents in Porter Township, Clarion county.

He enlisted in Company K of the 148th Regiment of the Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry on March 31, 1864 when his son, my grandfather, John Henry McKinney was two years and two months of age. He had been married a little over eight years at this point and had four children, the youngest Robert Morris, born on February 5, 1864. He returned about July 1865 when my grandfather was three years and six months of age. My mother told me that her father remembered, as a young boy, seeing this man walking down the lane in his blue uniform and bright brass buttons and running to his mother because he did not know who he was.

Anthony McKinney's nephew's, William H. Milligan, and William H. Divins enlisted in Company K on February 26, 1864.

As I now look back, I believe Anthony McKinney volunteered to serve due to a feeling of patriotism, which according to "History of Clarion County, Pennsylvania" ran high in Clarion County throughout the Civil War and, which they referred to as the War of the Rebellion. Additionally, I believe that he also may have been motivated by the benefits and security that the army pay and pension would bring to his family.

What is also interesting is that Lieutenant Jeremiah Z. Brown, of Company K of the 148th Regiment was detailed on recruiting service in Clarion County from early winter to about June 1, 1864. It may be that he recruited Anthony McKinney, the Milligans and some of the Divins for service in Company K. Jeremiah Z. Brown married Mary Jane Laughlin, niece of Anthony McKinney, on September 1, 1870 in Porter Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. He was awarded the Medal of Honor. See 'Notes File' for Jeremiah Z. Brown for additional details.

According to Thomas M. Divins (a close friend of Anthony McKinney and who was also in Company K) as told to Brainard McKinney, his grandson; Anthony was "was a sharp shooter, and a darn good one". "In one instance, Anthony picked off a Confederate sharp shooter out of a tree where he was hiding. Company K was unable to move forward and Anthony figured out where he was hiding by noticing Tulip leaves on a Hickory tree. The Confederate was hiding in a Hickory tree and and had covered himself with the wrong kind of leaves. It only took one shot and Company K then moved forward." (Source - Gary McKinney of St. Petersburg, Clarion County, Pa., in a letter to J.P. Rhein)

Other relatives who fought with Company K were Anthony Divins, September 7, 1862 to June 1, 1865; William H. Divins, February 26, 1864 to June 1, 1865: Thomas M. Divins, February 26, 1864 to June 1, 1865; James P. Divins, February 26, 1864 to June 1, 1865; David Divins, March 30 1864, died at New York due to illness contracted while in service, August 8, 1864, buried in Cypress Hill Cemetery, Long Island, New York; William H. Milligan, February 26, 1864, wounded at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12, 1864, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 18, 1865; and Joseph Milligan February 26, 1864 to June 1, 1865. (Note to File - J.P. Rhein)

"COMPANY K, ONE HUNDRED FORTY- EIGHTH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT

In August, 1862, Thompson Core recruited a company at Curllsville. August 26 was the day appointed to start for the army, and on that day forty two men left Curllsville in wagons for Kittanning, which place they reached at six o'clock P. M. On the 27th the company went on the cars, A. V. R. R., to Pittsburgh, reaching that city about noon. August 29 the men were mustered into the United States service. Captain Core, A. C. Coursin, and J. Z. Brown then returned to Clarion county to recruit; the company having been given quarters at Camp Howe. On the 4th of September the men were uniformed and taking the 'train that evening, they reached Harrisburg next morning, September 5, about five o'clock, and proceeded at once to Camp Curtin. On the 7th of September Captain Core, J. Z. Brown, and A. C. Coursin arrived at Camp Curtin with sixteen men for the company, and byreason of Lieutenant Ferguson not having a receipt to show that the other men had been sworn in at Pittsburgh, they were all re-sworn at the time the new men were mustered. On the 9th the company was armed with Vincennes rifled muskets, and assigned to the One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, as Company K. That evening the regiment, under command of Colonel James A. Beaver, started to the field. Captain Core started back to Clarion county to recruit. He returned to the regiment on the 27th of September with twenty-two recruits for Company K, nineteen of whom were from Montgomery county, the captain having recruited them at Harrisburg with the condition that Henry H. Dotts, one of their number, should be second lieutenant of the company. At this time the regiment's headquarters were at Cockeysville, and Company K was at Glencove, five miles above, all in Maryland. On the 17th of October the company received the advance bounty, twenty-five dollars to each man and two dollars premium. They were paid in bonds. On the 18th the bonds were sent to Baltimore and cashed by the Maryland bank. Rev. Elder, of Clarion, preached to the boys in Camp Beaver on the 3d of November, 1862. November 14th Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. Thomas, presented a flag to the regiment.

On the 9th of December the regiment broke camp and went to Baltimore, thence to Washington, thence to a point opposite Alexandria, ten miles from Washington. After marching, and camping, and, enduring wet and cold, the troops reached the army headquarters near Fredericksburg, and were placed in the First Brigade, First Division of Second Corps, and went into winter quarters. The horse racing and other amusements of St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1863, was brought to a sudden close by the rebels opening up a sharp cannonade on our right. The company broke camp, with the regiment, on the 28th of April, and marched to Chancellorsville, where it took part in that terrific struggle.

After this Company K attested its valor on many a well-fought field. The casualties to the company are carefully noted in the roll, having been corrected by Corporal Dennis Conner, to whom the writer is indebted for valuable data. Lieutenant J. Z. Brown was promoted captain July 7, I864 and on the 27th of October, 1864 (Battle at Boydton Plank Road) Captain Brown with a detachment of one hundred men from the regiment, performed one of the bravest and most successful exploits of the war. They were ordered by General Miles to assault a position of the enemy's line in front. Bates says: " Having formed his men for the desperate work, just at dusk he dashed forward, thrust aside the dense abattis, drove in the pickets, and scaled the ramparts, carrying a strong work, capturing four commissioned officers and more men than he had led to the encounter. The enemy rallying and turning his artillery upon it from the other forts, finally compelled him to retire, occasioning him considerable loss. For his gallant conduct Captain Brown was highly commended and breveted major." {See 'Notes File' on Jeremiah Z. Brown in which it comments on his receiving the Congressional Medal Of Honor for the above action} The company was mustered out June 1, 1865" (Source - History of Clarion County, Pennsylvania, by A. J. Davis, Syracuse, New York, D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1887)

"The One Hundred Forty-Eighth, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment had 12 Officers Killed or Mortally Wounded and four Officers died of disease or accident. One hundred ninety eight enlisted men were killed or mortally wounded and 183 died of disease or accident. Company K had one officer and 19 men killed or mortally wounded and 20 men died of disease, accident and in prison." (Source - History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1865)

"Battle of the Wilderness

(May 5-7, 1864), in the American Civil War, first stage of a carefully planned Union campaign to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va. Crossing the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg, Va., early in May, General Ulysses S. Grant advanced with a Union army of 115,000 men. On May 5 he met a Confederate army of 62,000 troops under General Robert E. Lee. The confrontation occurred in dense thickets, called the Wilderness, where orderly movement was impossible and cavalry and artillery were almost useless. (In September 1990, I toured the battlefield at the Wilderness, which is adjacent to the area where the battle of Chancellorsville was fought. The dense thickets still remain. Note to File - J. P. Rhein) Burning brush killed many of the wounded. After indecisive but intense fighting for two days, Grant saw the futility of further hostilities in this area and moved on to do battle at Spotsylvania Court House, nearer Richmond.

Grant surged across the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers on May 4, hoping to get through the tangled Wilderness before Lee could move. But the Confederate leader reacted instantly and, on May 5, attacked Grant from the west in the Battle of the Wilderness. Two days of bitter, indecisive combat ensued. Although Grant had 115,000 men available against Lee's 62,000, he found both Federal flanks endangered. Moreover, Grant lost 17,666 soldiers compared to a probable Southern loss of about 8,000. Pulling away from the Wilderness battlefield, Grant tried to hasten southeastward to the crossroads point of Spotsylvania Court House, only to have the Confederates get there first. In savage action (May 8-19), including hand-to-hand fighting at the famous "Bloody Angle," Grant, although gaining a little ground, was essentially thrown back. He had lost 18,399 men at Spotsylvania. Lee's combined losses at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania were an estimated 17,250.

{William Milligan was shot in the hand at Spotsylvania. The 148th lost 33 killed, 235 wounded and 33 missing - 301: the greatest loss of any infantry regiment at Spotsylvania. Note to File - J. P. Rhein}

"By the next morning, an eerie pall hung over the battlefield (Spotsylvania]; around Bloody Angle, 11,000 casualties lay dead and dying. All told, the butcher's bill for Spotsylvania was 18,000 casualties for Grant, between 9,000 and 10,000 for Lee. From May 12-15, the Army of the Potomac had lost a staggering 32,000, a total greater than all the Union armies combined in any previous week of the war.

"The bugles blew at 4:30 A.M. the next day (June 4, 1864 at Cold Harbor), and 60,000 Union men rose up. In the dim, gray light, the rebels were waiting. When the word "fire" was uttered, the ground itself began to "seethe". Along a seven-mile front, row upon row of blue uniforms came forward. From the trenches, the Confederates greeted the dense mass of attackers with a coordinated round of firepower. Union men fell like dominoes, and Grant suffered 7,000 casualties that day - most of them in the first eight minutes of battle alone. By early afternoon, the earsplitting roar ended; there was only silence, and Grant privately admitted defeat.

"In the thirty days since Grant had first fired upon Lee in the Wilderness on May 5, 1864 (Spotsylvania, May 8-19, North Anna, May 23-26, Cold Harbor, June 4), his Army of the Potomac had lost 50,000 men. That same army had lost only twice that - 100,000 - in all the previous three years of war." (Source - April 1865. The Month that Saved America, Jay Winik, Copyright 2001, HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 10 East 52nd Street, New York, NY 10022)

The cost and significance of the Civil War

While there were some desertions on both sides, the personal valour and the enormous casualties--both in absolute numbers and in percentage of numbers engaged--have not yet ceased to astound scholars and military historians everywhere. Based on the three-year standard of enlistment, about 1,556,000 soldiers served in the Federal armies, which suffered a total of 634,703 casualties (359,528 dead and 275,175 wounded). There were probably about 800,000 men serving in the Confederate forces, which sustained approximately 483,000 casualties (about 258,000 deaths and perhaps 225,000 wounded).

The cost in treasure was, of course, staggering for the embattled sections. Both governments, after strenuous attempts to finance the prosecution of the war by increasing taxes and floating loans, were obliged to resort to the printing press to make fiat money. While separate Confederate figures are lacking, the war finally cost the United States more than $15,000,000,000. The South, especially, where most of the war was fought and which lost its labour system, was physically and economically devastated. In sum, although the Union was preserved and restored, the cost in physical and moral suffering was incalculable, and some spiritual wounds caused by the holocaust still have not been healed." (Source - Encyclopedia Britannica)

"Given the number of our relatives from Clarion County, Pennsylvania, that fought with Company K at the Battle of the Wilderness, shortly after the date of their enlistment, I thought it appropriate to include below the details of that engagement as contained in the History of the Union Army." (Note to File - J.P. Rhein)

Wilderness, Va., May 5-7,1864.
Army of the Potomac.

On March 9,1864, Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant was raised to the rank of lieutenant-general and placed in command of all the United States armies in the field. The interval from that time until the 1st of May was spent in planning campaigns, and in strengthening, organizing and equipping the several armies in the different military districts. Grant remained with the Army of the Potomac, which was under the immediate command of Maj.- Gen. George G. Meade, and which had for its objective the destruction of the Confederate army under command of Gen. Robert E. Lee. On May 1, the Army of the Potomac lay along the north side of the Rapidan river and was organized as follows: The 2nd corps Maj.Gen. W. S. Hancock commanding, was composed of four divisions; the 1st commanded by Brig.-Gen. F. C. Barlow (148th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry was part of the 1st Division), the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. John Gibbon, the 3rd by Maj. Gen. D. B. Birney, and the 4th by Brig-Gen. Gershom Mott. The 5th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. G. K Warren, consisted of four divisions, respectively commanded by Brig Gens. Charles Griffin, J. C. Robinson, S. W. Crawford and J. S. Wadsworth. The 6th corps under command of Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick included the three divisions commanded by Brig.-Gens. H. G. Wright, G. W. Getty and James B. Ricketts. The 9th corps,Maj.-Gen. A. E. Burnside commanding, was composed of four divisions, each of which was commanded by a brigadier general-the 1st by T. G. Stevenson, the 2nd by R B. Potter, the 3rd by O. B. Willcox and the 4th by Edward Ferrero. The cavalry corps, under command of Maj.-Gen. P. H. Sheridan,consisted of three divisions, the 1st commanded by Brig.-Gen. T. A. Torbert, the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. G. A. Custer and the 3rd by Brig-Gen. J. H. Wilson. With the 2nd corps was the artillery brigade under Col John C. Tidball; the artillery of the 5th corps was in charge of Col. C. S. Wainwright; that of the 6th corps under Col. C. H. Tompkins, and the artillery reserve, composed of Kitching's, J. A. Tompkins' and Burton's brigades, was commanded by Brig.-Gen. Henry J. Hunt. Burnside had 14 light and 2 heavy batteries. During the campaign the 18th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. W. F. Smith, was transferred from the Army of the James to the Army of the Potomac. This corps was composed of three divisions, commanded by Brig.-Gens. W. T. H. Brooks, Godfrey Weitzel and E. W. Hinks, and the cavalry division under Brig-Gen. August V. Kautz.

Lee's army-the Army of Northern Virginia-consisted of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd corps, respectively commanded by Lieut.-Gens. James Longstreet, R. S. Ewell and A. P. Hill, and the cavalry corps of Maj.Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. Longstreet's corps included the divisions of Kershaw and Field, and the artillery brigade under Brig.-Gen. E. P. Alexander. Ewell's corps was made up of the divisions of Early, Edward Johnson and Rodes, and the artillery brigade of Brig.-Gen. A. L. Long Hill's corps was composed of the divisions of R. H. Anderson, Heth and Wilcox, and his artillery was commanded by Col. R. L. Walker. Stuart's cavalry embraced three divisions, commanded by Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee and W. H. F. Lee, and the horse artillery under Maj. R. P. Chew. The Union army numbered about 120,000 men of all arms, exclusive of Smith's corps. Lee's army numbered about 61,000 not including the forces under Beauregard on the Petersburg lines and the troops left in the defenses of Richmond, about 30,000 in all. Ewell's corps was intrenched along the south side of the Rapidan, his right resting near Morton's ford a short distance above the mouth of Mine run. The upper half of the intrenched line was held by Hill's corps, the left extending to Barnett's ford, about 5 miles west of the Orange & Alexandria railroad. Longstreet's command was at Gordonsville, the junction of the Orange & Alexandria and the Virginia Central railroads. Lee's headquarters were at Orange Court House, about half way between Longstreet and the line along the Rapidan, from which point he could easily communicate with his corps commanders, and detachments of cavalry watched the various fords and bridges along the river.

Grant's plan was to cross the Rapidan at the fords below the Confederate line of entrenchments move rapidly around Lee's right flank and force him either to give battle or retire to Richmond. As soon as this movement was well under way, Gen. Butler, with the Army of the James, was to advance up the James river from Fortress Monroe and attack Richmond from the south. The region known as the Wilderness, through which the Army of the Potomac was to move, lies between the Rapidan the north and the Mattapony on the south. It is about 12 miles wide from north to south and some 16 miles in extent from east to west. Near the center stood the Wilderness tavern, 8 miles west of Chancellorsville and 6 miles south of Culpeper Mine ford on the Rapidan. A short distance west of the tavern the plank road from Germanna ford crossed the Orange & Fredericksburg turnpike, and then running southeast for about 2 miles intersected the Orange plank road near the Hickman farmhouse. The Brock road left the Orange & Fredericksburg pike about a mile east of the tavern and ran southward to Spotsylvania Court House, via Todd's tavern. The first iron furnaces in the United States were established in the Wilderness, the original growth of timber had been cut off to furnish fuel for the furnaces, and the surface, much broken by ravines, ridges and old ore beds, was covered by a second growth of pines, scrub-oaks, etc., so dense in places that it was impossible to see a man at a distance of 50 yards. Between the Orange plank road and the Fredericksburg pike ran a little stream called Wilderness run, and north of the latter road was Flat run the general direction of both streams being northeast toward the Rapidan into which they emptied. On the Orange plank road, about 4 miles southwest from the Wilderness tavern, was Parker's store.

From the Confederate signal station on Clark's mountain, near the right of Ewell's position, the Federal camps could be plainly seen. On May 2nd Lee, accompanied by several of his generals, made a personal observation, saw the commotion in the Union lines, and rightly conjectured that an early movement of some kind was in contemplation. He accordingly directed his officers to hold their commands in readiness to move against the flank of the Federal army whenever the orders were given from the signal station. It was on this same day that Meade, by Grant's instructions, issued his orders for the advance. Knowing that his every movement was observed by the enemy, he determined to cross the Rapidan during the night. At midnight on the 3rd the 5th and 6th corps, preceded by Wilson cavalry division, began crossing at Germanna ford. The 2nd corps, preceded by Gregg's cavalry, crossed at Ely's ford farther down the river. On the evening of the 4th Warren's corps went into bivouac near the Wilderness tavern, Sedgwick was between Warren and the Rapidan; Hancock was near the cross-roads at Chancellorsville and Burnside, with the 9th corps, was moving by a forced march from the Rappahannock river toward Germanna ford in response to a telegram from Grant. Wilson's cavalry covered both the plank road and the turnpike west of Warren's camp, the main body of the division being at Parker's store and a small force at Robertson's tavern on the pike. The orders issued that evening for the movements of the army on the 5th would indicate that both Grant and Meade believed that Lee would fall back toward Richmond upon finding his flank turned by a superior force. In this they were mistaken. Lee had outgeneraled Hooker on the same ground a year before, and he now decided to make an effort at least to drive the Federals back across the Rapidan. Therefore, as soon as he learned on the morning of the 4th that Meade's advance had crossed the river, Ewell was directed to move by the Orange turnpike, Hill by the plank road, and Longstreet was ordered to bring up his corps with all possible despatch. That night Ewell was bivouacked about 5 miles from Warren's camp, Hill was at Verdiersville, about 3 miles in the rear of Ewell, and Longstreet was at Brock's bridge, 10 miles east of Gordonsville.

Discontinued due to lack of space - approximately six pages or about 33% of the article not reprinted here. The conclusion follows.

The Union loss in the battle of the Wilderness was 2,246 killed 12,037 wounded and 3,383 captured or missing. No doubt many of the wounded were burned to death or suffocated in the fire that raged through the woods on Hancock's front. Concerning the enemy's casualties Badeau, in his Military History of U. S. Grant, says: "The losses of Lee no human being can tell. No official report of them exists, if any was ever made, and no statement that has been put forth in regard to them has any foundation but a guess. It seems however, fair to presume that as Lee fought outside of his works as often as Grant, and was as often repelled, the slaughter of the rebels equaled that in the national army. The grey coats lay as thick as the blue next day, when the national scouts pushed out over the entire battle-field and could discover no living enemy " (Source: The Union Army, vol. 6)

"One Hundred Forty-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment - Battles Fought

Battle at Chancellorsville Virginia on 02 May 1863
Battle at Chancellorsville Virginia on 03 May 1863
Battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on 02 July 1863
Battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on 03 July 1863
Battle at Auburn Mills, Virginia on 14 October 1863
Battle at Bristoe Station, Virginia on 14 October 1863
Battle at Kelley's Ford, 03 November 1863
Battle at Wilderness Virginia on 04 May 1864 (Anthony McKinney enlisted March 31, 1864)
Battle at Wilderness Virginia on 07 May 1864
Battle at Po River, Virginia on 09 May 1864
Battle at Po River, Virginia on 10 May 1864
Battle at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia on 10 May 1864
Battle at Spotsylvania Court House Virginia on 12 May 1864
Battle at Spotsylvania Court House Virginia on 13 May l864
Battle at Spotsylvania Court House Virginia on 14 May 1864
Battle at North Anna River, Virginia on 24 May 1864
Battle at Four Mile Run, Virginia on 29 May 1864
Battle at Bethesda Church Virginia on 30 May 1864
Battle at Totopotomoy Creek Virginia on 30 May 1864
Battle at Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia on 31 May 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor, Virginia on 01 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor. Virginia on 02 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor Virginia on 03 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor. Virginia on 04 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor, Virginia on 05 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor, Virginia on 06 June 1864
Battle at North Anna River, Virginia on 07 June 1864
Battle at Cold Harbor, Virginia on 11 June 1864 (Anthony McKinney hit in the leg with sharpnel which he had until his death.)
Battle at Petersburg Virginia on 15 June 1864
Battle at Petersburg Virginia on 16 June 1864
Battle at Petersburg, Virginia on 17 June 1864
Battle at Petersburg. Virginia on 18 June 1864
Battle at Jerusalem Plank Road. Virginia on 22 June 1864
Battle at Petersburg, Virginia on 22 June 1864
Battle at Strawberry Plains, Virginia on 22 June 1864
Battle at Deep Bottom Run Virginia on 14 August 1864
Battle at Deer Bottom Run Virginia on 15 August 1864
Battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia on 16 August 1864
Battle at Deer Bottom Run Virginia on 18 August 1864
Battle at Reams' Station. Virginia on 24 August 1864
Battle at Reams' Station, Virginia on 25 August 1864
Battle at Deep Bottom Run Virginia on 28 August 1864
Battle at Petersburg, Virginia on 08 October 1864
Battle at Petersburg, Virginia on 26 October 1864
Battle at Boydton Plank Road. Virginia on 27 October 1864 (Captain J.Z. Brown awarded Congressional Medal
Battle at Strawberry Plains, Virginia on 29 October 1864 of Honor for distinguished gallantry in action in leading a
Battle at Petersburg, Virginia on 25 March 1865 company of 100 volunteers in a charge at Fort Morton,
Battle at Gravelly Run, Virginia on 30 March 1865 Boyton Plank Road on the evening of October 27, 1864)
Battle at Adams Farm, Virginia on 31 March 1865
Battle at Five Forks, Virginia on 31 March 1865
Battle at Gravelly Run, Virginia on 31 March 1865
Battle at South Side Railroad, Virginia on 31 March 1865
Battle at Petersburg. Virginia on 02 April 1865
Battle at Adams Run, Virginia on 05 April 1865
Battle at Farmville, Virginia on 07 April 1865"

(Source - History of Pennsylvania Volunteers)

On the morning of April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to General U. S. Grant at the McLean House, Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Following is a copy of the parole agreement signed by Lee and his staff.

"We, the undersigned Prisoners of War, belonging to the Army of Northern Virginia, having been this day surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, C. S. A., Commanding said Army, to Lieut. Genl. U. S. Grant, Commanding Armies of United States, do hereby give our solemn pledge of honor that we will not hereafter serve in the armies of the Confederate States, or in any military capacity whatsoever, against the United States of America or render aid to the enemies of the latter, until properly exchanged in such manner as shall be mutually approved by the respective authorities.

Done at Appomattox Court )
House, Va., this 9th day of )
April, 1865. " )

AFFIDAVIT
June 15, 1887

I am well and personally acquainted with William Milligan. I have known him for years. I was a member of Company K, 148th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers and he served in the same company with me, Company K, 148th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. I know the said William Milligan to commence to suffer with rheumatism and neuralgia at the Battle of the Wilderness in the State of Virginia about May 5 or 7th, 1864 and to receive treatment for the same at sick call and he continued to suffer and complain of rheumatism and neuralgia until he left the regiment. I know the facts from being personally present in the company at the time and hearing him complain of said diseases.
These are the facts and all I know about it. You have my affidavit on file in the case.
Anthony McKinney

(Source - Examination of photocopy of original- Joseph Philip Rhein)

[Brøderbund Family Archive #285, Ed. 1, Census Index: Western PA, PENNSYLVANIA CENSUS (WEST), Clarion County, 1870, Date of Import: May 20, 1997, Internal Ref. #1.285.1.10044.29]
Individual: Mckinney, Anthony
Race: W
Age: 39
Birth place: PA
Township: Toby Twp
Microfilm: Roll 1326, Page 663

A few observations on slavery as taken from "The Philadelphia Inquirer", Sunday, July 31, 2005.

"It is estimated that between 1451 and 1870, about 339,000 Africans were sold into slavery and went to the British Colonies in America.

Most blacks were forbidden to join the Union Army at the start of the Civil War. They were allowed only after the Emancipation Proclamation. By 1865, a total of 185,000 African Americans had served in Union Army.

In 1860 there were nine million whites living in the Southern states of which 4% or 360,000 owned slaves."

Assuming that the average family consisted of seven individuals then we could assume that there were approximately 1,285,714 families. Assuming eight individuals per family, the number is 1,125,000. Assume further that the 360,000 individuals owning slaves had an average family of seven or eight individuals, then approximately 28% to 32% of the families in the South owned slaves.  
McKinney, Anthony (I0025)
 
518 The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol XXXI, No 2, February 2010, page 54, by William Gilbreath, lists a Hugh Galbraith, of Glasgow and County Longford, baptized in 1654, as a son of Archibald Galbraith and Catherine Vallias. It is further stated that he is the Major Hugh Galbraith in the three-decade-long Balgair land suit.

This is in conflict with my earlier reference to Major Hugh Galbraith (I4318), son of Andrew (I43417), based on the litigation information.

I have entered it here as a matter of information pending further investigation and follow-up.

(Note to File - JP Rhein)

Details from the February 2010 article follow.

HUGH GALBRAITH of Glasgow and County Longford, Ireland, and baptized in 1654, is 21 years younger than his half-brother John of Blessingbourne. We have considerable information on Hugh, as he is one of the principal characters in the three-decade-long Balgair land suit that played out around 1800. The lines of both the first and second entail from Balgair's owner James Galbraith's will of 1705 and died out in the late 1790s. The third substitute named by James was a "Major Hugh Galbraith of Ireland son of Andrew of Scotland and his heirs' male".

There were two (and possible others) Hugh Galbraiths of Ireland when James died, one being our subject and the other, a Hugh of County Galway and a proven Major. The nephew of our subject Hugh was Captain Robert Galbraith (son of John of Blessingboume) and Robert was the fourth substitute. The Balgair Case has a few documents and many pages of epositions regarding Hugh. While the Balgair case evolved over 30 years, it took place a hundred years after the period of immediate interest to us. The plaintiffs relied heavily on the depositions of children or grandchildren to the principals-colleagues and relatives of Hugh, who died in 1703. We have Hugh, placed here, as a son of Archibald, and half-brother to John Galbraith of Blessingbourne.

Our knowledge of Hugh, beyond his 1654 baptism, begins with his imprisonment in 1676 after being caught at a banned religious meeting in the Pentland Hills outside of Edinburgh. He was actually freed, an unusual occurrence, when he convinced the Lords of the Court that he was an unknowing native of Ireland and just visiting. We suspect that this Hugh settled in Glasgow and became a merchant, as we have a record: "Galbraith, Hugh, B. and G.B., as third 1. [lawful] son to dec. Archibald G., merchant, B. and G.B. 09 Aug 1680 Lanarkshire, Scotland". Archibald, as we saw above, had brought the family line to Ireland and died by 1664. First son John became our John of Blessingbourne. The second lawful son, according to the baptism, was a James, whom we have not been able to trace. According to baptisms, there was a Robert as the 3rd son but we know that he died pre-teen as another Robert was later baptized to the family and thus Hugh became the 3rd lawful son. Our Hugh assumed his father's role as B. and G.B.-Burgess and Guild Brethren-at age 26, after apparently passing most of his life in Ireland. He continued on in Glasgow for almost two decades, as we have a number of deeds involving him-or perhaps he 'commuted' to Ireland, and we know he was also involved with trade in London and married Elizabeth Lewis there.

Here is Hugh's summary biography based on existing documentation.

1654-Baptized in Glasgow as son of Archibald Galbraith.

Apparently lived in Ireland until 1676.

Imprisoned in Cannongate, Edinburgh but he was soon released

1680--Granted guild status in Glasgow
1680 through 1693 - 12 deeds and bonds for merchant Hugh in Glasgow.

1691-Hugh arranges in London to supply goods for troops in Ireland fighting the Catholic James II 1691- War ends before goods reach Ireland and Hugh arranges to transship them to conflicts in Spain.

1693-French privateer seizes his ship and cargo and Hugh fails to collect on insurance in London.

1695 - Living in St. Johnston in County Longford.

1697 - Leases Leitrim Manor, County Leitrim, from Lord Landsborough and transferred it to nephew Arthur.

1702 - Prepares will and dies childless in late 1703,leaving widow Elizabeth Lewis of London.

Hugh's actual circumstances and whereabouts are muddled as we have conflicting testimony regarding his identity from the Balgair Case. The plaintiffs are positive that he is Major Hugh of the Balgair entailment but, except for one forged letter, they never provide a document using this title. A number of witnesses surface, many credible, who swear that their parents or grandparents knew this 'Major' Hugh Galbraith of County Longford. It is curious that the several hundred pages of trial testimony and exhibits within The Balgair Case never correctly identified Hugh Galbraith' of St. Johnstown, County Longford, as he was known in the Balgair hearings. Nor did they recognize that his father was Archibald, rather than the Andrew Galbraith specified in the Entailment by James Galbraith.

This heritage connection should have quickly eliminated Hugh's line from consideration as the Balgair heir. A partial summation by the attorney for Plaintiff William Arthur Galbraith (he, the great- great-great grandson of John of Blessingbourne) addressing the Lords of Scotland who were judging the suits: "Major Hugh married Eizabeth Lewis in London, came to St. Johnston after the restoration [of Charles II, 1661], then served against King James in the north of Ireland and after the Revolution [1688-9, in support of William and Mary] returned and settled with his quartermaster Ringan, alias Ninian Galbraith across the street in St. Johnston [in Co. Longford] and also brought John Morton with him and made him [i.e., Molton] the manager of the [near-by land] Manor of Leitrim; the Means or Maines also came with him from the north of Ireland." Morton was the long deceased father to aged witness Johnston Morton and the grandchildren of the Means were also witnesses for the plaintiffs.

"Hugh had raised a troop and been a temporary Major in the North" and "Major Hugh and Capt Robert had come to that part of the Country together". It was a very favorable point in the suit that Captain Robert shows in his will that he is the 4th entail, as it would be natural, but likely incorrect, that his Uncle Hugh might be the 3rd in line. However, the testimony never revealed that the two were closely related. The plaintiffs did prove that this Hugh died without a lawful male issue so that the descendants of Robert were. in their minds the legal inheritors. Although the Hugh Galbraith living in Galway was proven to be a Major, there was no mention in the bags of family records of his father or even that he was from Scotland.

Among the counter statements by the attorney for the defendant Richard Galbraith of County Galway: "But it is Hugh of Longford, that is likely late of Dublin, as he came from London in 1691, according to the bill he filed in the Court of the Exchequer. The Lewis family resides there according to the will of Elizabeth, his spouse." Thus, if Hugh did not come to Ireland until 1691, he did not fight for King William and would not have been a Major, as called for in James's 1705 will. Actually. Hugh might have
been in Ireland during this questioned period for we have deeds for Hugh in Glasgow through 1687 and then there is a hiatus until a most interesting" deed is drawn in November of 1693. As neither side in the Balgair land suits could achieve the requirement of proving their Hugh was the son of Andrew, the Lords reluctantly awarded the lands to the descendants of Hugh of County Galway.
 
Galbraith, Hugh (I4365)
 
519 THE SEARCH FOR THE FOREBEAR OF JOHN MCKINNEY


After searching for over 30 years for the forebear of John McKinney (1788-1862) I finally met with some success.

BACKGROUND

Details in the following two paragraphs were sent to me in an e mail on November 16, 2003 by Gary McKinney of St. Petersburg, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. He confirmed it in a telephone call on November 23rd, in which he advised further that a descendant of John McKinney and Mary Llewellyn in Venango County informed him that the second son was named Anthony or John. Gary followed this up with the following additional information and documentation that I received on December 5, 2003.

In a History of Venango County, Pennsylvania, published 1890, it states that a John McKinney was a soldier in the American Revolution, emigrated from the North of Ireland and settled in Chester County, Pennsylvania where he reared a family. From a DAR application paper dated 1966, information states that John McKinney was a volunteer in the Continental Army as a private. He was on the payroll of Captain Andrew Lang’s (should be Long) Company of the first Battalion of the Rifle Regiment in the service of the Province of Pennsylvania, commanded by Daniel Broadhead. He enlisted in April 1776 and was quartered in camp near King’s Bridge in the militia, 5th class of the 4th Battalion, Chester County, Militia, Captain John Rowland. The application lists his children as: Anthony, Samuel (married Rachel McKinney, see paragraph following) Mary and Susan. He is the son of James Collin McKinney, born in Ireland, and Sarah Boone.

“Mrs. Rachel McKinney, aged 96 and one of the first settlers in Venango County died in her home in Salem, near Oil City last Friday night. By marriage she was the aunt of Mrs. John Turney of Sligo of Clarion County and was thus related to a large number of residents of this county. Being a great aunt to some of them and being a great Aunt to others of them. She was the mother of 12 children. Her husband was born in 1796 and died in 1871. Received a silver medal for conspicuous gallantry in Perry’s victory on Lake Erie in the War of 1812”. Clarion County Democrat dated March 7, 1895. Mrs. John Turney is Jane Emerick McKinney, the youngest daughter of John McKinney and Mary Magadalene Emerick. It is interesting that Anthony McKinney, the youngest son, was residing in Sligo, at that time, but is not mentioned in the article. Whether Federick Roy McKinney was aware of this article and elected to ignore it in his research, I do not know.

CONCLUSION

Circumstantial evidence continues to indicate that John McKinney married to Mary Magdalene Emerick may be the son named Anthony in the DAR application above. Whether Anthony (John) is the oldest son is not known. If so, his date of birth would be prior to May 14, 1785, the date of birth of Mary, the oldest daughter and after October 31, 1786, the date of birth of Samuel. I suspect that he was born after Samuel, thus making his date of birth about 1788, the generally accepted date of his birth. Also the DAR application states that the family was reared in Chester County. This is not correct as daughter Susan was born on April 13, 1790 and does not appear on the Federal Census for Northumberland County, Pennsylvania with the family of John McKinney the American Revolutionary Veteran, married to Mary Llewellyn.

John McKinney, the American Revolutionary veteran, owned the property adjacent to John Nicholus Emerick in Northumberland County, later Walker Township, Centre County. As shown in the census information below he had two sons residing at home in 1790. There is, however, no documentation in support of the information on Anthony (John) such as a record of his baptism or date of birth. The Affidavit of Rachel McKinney, dated April 22, 1893, states that her husband Samuel was born in Centre County (at that time Northumberland County), Pennsylvania on October 31, 1786, contributing further to the confusion. The fact that a John McKinney married Mary Magdalene Emerick who lived on the adjacent farm and they named their youngest son Anthony continues to fuel the speculation that he is the son of the American Revolutionary veteran.

On the other hand, the fact that son Anthony (John) did not appear to share in any inheritance and the fact that he was a “Scotchman by birth”, raise a question as to the authenticity of this line of descent. Contributing to the skepticism is the fact that Frederick Roy McKinney, born August 22, 1886, and who had done extensive research on the McKinney line in the 1920’s, did not identify this line and alluded that John’s father was Samuel. Also Anthony McKinney, son of John, died in Sligo on June 19, 1901. He resided next to his sister, Jane Emerick McKinney Turney, but did not appear in the write up in the Clarion County Democrat, dated March 7, 1895.
It may be that John McKinney, born 1748 in Ireland, followed the practice of many Scotch-Irish settlers in preparing his Will. Under Scottish law property fell into two categories. Buildings, anything to do with land and mineral rights, known as heritable property, went to the eldest son (the law of primogeniture). The rest, called movable property consisted of goods, money, and other items. Traditionally this was divided into thirds. The widow received a third (jus relictae), another third was divided equally among the children (legitim), with the remainders, the deid’s part, consisting of bequests by the deceased. In the absence of either widow or children, movable property would be divided into two parts, or simply became all the deid part, although that always had to be confirmed by the court. If the above assertion is correct then John (Anthony) is the second son and was born after Samuel.
It also appears somewhat strange that there does not appear to be any record of correspondence or contact between the two brothers and/or their families after their arrival in Clarion and Venango Counties from Centre County.

I was always intrigued by the fact that John McKinney who came from a Presbyterian background married a Reformed German. It may be that John was estranged from the family and his brother Samuel.

While not answering all of the questions above, and recognizing that additional work will have to be done to establish conclusively this relationship, the weight of evidence indicates that there is fair degree of probability that John McKinney, born about 1788, is indeed the son of John McKinney and Mary Llewellyn and the brother of Samuel. Until evidence to the contrary surfaces, I have elected to treat it as such.

DETAILS OF THE EARLIER SEARCH
AND ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND

There is little in the published record and what there is, appears somewhat contradictory.

In early manhood, William Divins married Miss Mary, daughter of John McKinney a native of Scotland. In 1846 James Laughlin was married in Porter Township, Clarion County, to Miss Susan McKinney a native of that township and a daughter of John McKinney, one of the pioneers of Clarion County. In Centre County William Divins married Miss Mary McKinney, a lady of intelligence and refinement, who was born in that county, a daughter of John McKinney, a Scotchman by birth. (a) All the locations are in Pennsylvania, unless otherwise noted.

Mary Magdalene Emerick, born 3 May 1791, married John McKinney ca 1810, born 1780, died 1862. Mary died 11 Nov 1860. Mary Magdalene Emerick's parents are John Nicholas Emerick (1763-1815) and Maria Barbara Riegel (1768-1854). He bought land from Peter Ulse and sold it to Peter Neice. He was a farmer and blacksmith. He bought 307 acres of land in Walker Township, Centre County on June 15, 1802. John and Maria Barbara are buried in Dunkle-Emerick Cemetery in Walker Township. (b) Kenneth D. Haines does not cite a source as to the date of birth for John McKinney.

Riegell to Riggle also gives the date of John McKinney's marriage to Mary Magdalene Emerick as ca 1810 and lists his year of birth as 1780. © As this was published later than Haines’ work, and as there was no citation given, I suspect that it may have been copied from it.

Our Great Grandfather, John McKinney, was about three years older than his wife. She was born May 3, 1791. He about 1788, he was past 73 years of age, he died about January 8, 1862, and he was buried at Squirrel Hill Cemetery, Porter Township, Clarion County. (d) This citation is from the work of Fred Roy McKinney, who resided at Sligo, Clarion County, about six miles Northwest of Squirrel Hill Cemetery. All distances are based on a straight line between the two points. I suspect the gravesite marker may have stated his age in years or the year of birth but may not have been distinguishable, thus the estimate. John Mogle, a Trustee of the Squirrel Hill Cemetery, advised that it is a combination of three church cemeteries in the 1930’s, Methodist, Lutheran and Reformed. There are no records prior to that date. There is a replacement marker at the gravesite for John McKinney and Mary Magdalene Emerick, erected by Gary and Mark McKinney that shows John’s year of birth as 1788. Gary stated that the date of birth was obtained from the work done by Fred McKinney. He also informed me that when he visited this site with his father in the early 1970’s there was no marker for John McKinney. An analysis and reconciliation of John McKinney’s year of birth with the 1810 and 1820 Federal Census for Centre County indicates that the date of birth is about 1788.

The earliest surveys made in the area around present day Walker Township were in November 1770 at which time it was part of Cumberland County that was formed in 1750 from Lancaster County. In 1771 it became part of Bedford County when Bedford was formed from Cumberland. In 1772 it became part of Northumberland County when Northumberland was formed. On February 13, 1800 it became a part of Centre County when it was formed. Mifflin County was formed in 1789 from Northumberland County. It is adjacent to and southwest of Northumberland County and adjacent to and southeast of Centre County.

Walker Township, is situated in Nittany valley proper, and is traversed by Little Fishing creek. Its villages are Zion, Hublersburg, Snydertown and Nittany, and it has considerable ore deposits. The township was erected at January sessions, 1810, and called for the then present Judge Jonathan H. Walker. Logans Gap, was built by Judge Isaac McKinney in 1825. At January session 1810, Howard and Walker Townships were erected out of Centre Township and the latter name abolished. Centre was one of the original townships in Centre County. (g)

Villages and towns in Walker Township also include Forest, Peck's Store, Huston, Strunktown, Helca Park, also known as present day Mingoville. Hublersburg is about 10 miles Northeast of Bellefonte, the county seat of Centre County.

Walker Township lies between Eagle Mountain and Nittany Mountain, which mountain ranges run Southwest to Northeast.

THE McKINNEYS

The 1790 Federal Census for Pennsylvania lists the names of 15 McKinneys. Five in Northumberland County, unknown township, Rebecca, Abram, William, Daniel, and John; one in Mifflin County; William, four in Cumberland County, David, Jean and two Patricks, all in Hopewell, Newton, Tryborn and West Pennsboro Townships, three in Washington County, and one each in Allegheny and Philadelphia Counties.

John McKinney one free white male 16 years and upward including head of household, is the American Revolutionary War Veteran; two free white males under 16 years of age, Samuel (1786-1871), later married Rachel McKinney, John, later married Mary Magadalene Emerick; two free white females, Mary, born May 14, 1785, later married John Fulton, Mary Llewellyn, wife. Daughter Susan, born April 13, 1790 is not listed in the census.

John McKinney, a volunteer in 1776 in the Continental Army, serving in Capt. Andrew Long's Company, 1st Battalion, Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, commanded by Col. Daniel Broadhead. He was born in Ireland, before 1760, died in Centre County, Pennsylvania. He was married to Mary Llewellyn. (j) Mary was the daughter of David Llewellyn who lived in Haverford, Chester County.

Colonel Broadhead commanded the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment, Pennsylvania Line that was formed in July 1776 of men from Westmoreland and Bedford Counties in western Pennsylvania. Colonel Broadhead's regiment was in the Penn's valley area of Northumberland County, later Centre County on July 15, 1778. Broadhead received the thanks of Congress for his expedition against the Indians who were devastating the western frontier. He was born in Ulster County, New York and died in Milford, Pennsylvania.

A ‘Captain Lee’ was in the area of Sunbury in 1778 ……… Included were some military warrants, one in the name of John McKinney, late a soldier in the Pennsylvania Line, for 100 acres, No. 10113. (k) This may be John McKinney above, who came to Northumberland County after 1786 and before 1790. It may be that he came to Northumberland County as a result of his military service.

A 'John McKinney' was a surety on the Estate of Felix McClaskey in Northumberland County on August 26, 1794. Whether this is the same individual referred to in the preceding paragraphs, I do not know.

The McKinneys have been in Venango County for the better part of a century. Their first ancestor in America came from the North of Ireland and settled in Haverford, Chester County where he reared his family. He served on the American side in the Revolution. His son Samuel McKinney was born in Chester County, October 31, 1786 and when the War of 1812 broke out was living in Centre County. He was awarded a silver medal by the legislature in 1819 (while a resident of the Nittany Valley in Centre County where he farmed and operated a fulling mill). He died on September 20, 1871. He married Rachel McKinney (1799-1895) from Sunbury on May 23, 1816. She died after 1871. He brought his family to Venango County in 1832-33, securing two hundred acres near Salem City. (f) Samuel McKinney (fulling mill) is listed as an inhabitant of Walker Township in 1810 at which time, Samuel, son of John McKinney would have been 24 years of age. In 1828 this fulling mill is listed as being owned by George McCormick.

Rebecca is Rebecca Lane (1727-1823) the widow of David McKinney (1735/1740-1784). They were married in 1761. David McKinney is of Scotch-Irish origin and lived in New Jersey and Virginia before he came to Sunbury, Northumberland County, where he located in the spring of 1772. (m) In the year 1774 a David McKinney is listed as a taxable inhabitant of Augusta Township (embraced that part of Northumberland County south of the North Bend of the Susquehanna River). In the Augusta Township tax list for 1778-1780 a David McKinney, Esq., is listed as owning 739.3 acres. There is an affidavit of Richard Manning, dated October 23, 1783, which states that David McKinney was living on Indian land and that he kept his family in Sunbury. (p) He was a miller by trade, but he established one of the first distilleries at Sunbury and carried on the business for some years. Late in life he removed to a farm on the West Branch, near Great Island, and there he died.

Rebbeca McKinney, widow of David, received a land grant consisting of 300 acres on July 20, 1785. Deed records show that she sold this land to her son in 1802.

David and Rebecca had a family of nine children, Abraham, Mary, John, Isaac, Sarah, Jacob, James, Elizabeth and Rachel. (m) John married Elizabeth Dunn and they had at least one child, Rachel McKinney (1799-1895). John died in 1806. Rachel was raised by her grandmother, Rebecca McKinney, in Sunbury. There is no information available as to Elizabeth Dunn. Rachel later was residing with her uncle, Isaac McKinney and his wife who had removed to Centre County where he became a prominent citizen, establishing an iron furnace and serving as associate judge. Rachel met her future husband, Samuel McKinney (1786-1871) at the home of her uncle, Isaac McKinney. Rachel and Samuel were married May 23, 1816 in Centre County.

Census information for Rebecca McKinney lists two white females and one free white male of 16 years and upward. I believe this is Rebecca Lane (1737-1823) married in 1761 to David McKinney, (1735/1740-1784) who settled in Sunbury, Northumberland County in 1770. (The date of birth is in conflict with the year 1727 above.) I believe the male in the census listing is Isaac McKinney who married Jane Flemming in 1794. Isaac was a millwright, later a merchant. He was commissioned associate judge in 1819. He built Heckla Furnace at Logan's Gap in 1825. Isaac's sons, David and John became eminent ministers of the gospel, Presbyterian. (h)

An Isaac McKinney came to Kishacoquillas Valley in 1791 from Centre County. Isaac's parents settled at Sunbury in 1770. Isaac was a millwright, later a merchant. He married Jane Fleming in 1794. (h) This is confusing as Kishacoquillas Valley was in Mifflin County in 1791 and was about 28 miles (Bellevue area) Southwest of Sunbury. Centre County was not formed until 1800 and is to the northwest of this area of Mifflin County. Isaac went to Kishacoquillas Valley from Sunbury prior to his marriage. I believe that he went to Walker Township later.

Abram McKinney: I believe this is Abraham McKinney (1762-1835). Abraham McKinney, son of David, was born November 12, 1762, and came to Northumberland County from New Jersey. He first lived at what is now the site of Herndon, being one of the earliest settlers thereabout and later moved to Sunbury, where he followed his trade of stonemason and built many of the stone houses in that section. As he was 10 years of age when he came to Northumberland County with his parents it is presumed that David, his father above, may have also settled at Herdon, later moving to Sunbury. Abraham died at Sunbury, September 13, 1885 and was the first person buried in the lower cemetery. He was married to Abigail Lomison and appears to have been a prominent man. Listed as a witness on the Estate of Joseph Pumroy, November 25, 1783. Listed as a surety on the Estate of William Moore, Sr., on August 28, 1798. Listed a surety on the Estate of Adam Fisher, dated December 28, 1798. Listed as an executor for the Estate of John Lyon of Borough of Sunbury, Northumberland County, dated July 24, 1800. The land that John Lyon purchased in Buffaloe Township was from a Jacob McKinney (presumably Abraham's brother). Among Abraham's children were Jacob (1797-1861) married to Rebecca Barbara (1801-1860), Rachel married to John Burrell at Sunbury, John and James, the latter born in 1805 at Mahanoy, Northumberland County. (a)

William McKinney: wife and one son under 16 years of age. This may be the son of David McKinney and Rebecca Lane. No other information available.

Daniel McKinney: one free white male of 16 years and upward, one free white male under 16 years and two free white females including heads of families. No other information available.

JOHN EMERICK IN NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, LATER WALKER TOWNSHIP, CENTRE COUNTY

Our forebear, John Adam Emerick (1729-1813) had three sons with the first name of Johannes or John, all of whom went to Northumberland County prior to 1790, the date of the first Federal Census. The distance from Stouchsburg, Tulpenhocken Township, the area in which they initially lived to Hublersburg, the area where John Nicholaus Emerick settled, is about 85 miles.

The 1790 Federal Census for Pennsylvania, Northumberland County, lists a John Emerick with one free white male 16 years and upward including head of household, one free white male under 16, and one free white female including head of families. There are no other Emericks and no Emerichs or Emmerichs listed in Northumberland County.

Johannes George Emerick, born 1759, Tulpehocken Township died 1805 in Centre County. He went to Northumberland County in 1789. Married first, Regina Brua daughter of Peter Brua. She died in Centre County in 1799 leaving six children. The children were taken back to Berks County by relatives. Johannes George married second Barbara Elizabeth Ohl Shook in 1802, widow of John Shook who died in 1798. (b)

Johannes Casper Emerick, born 1761, married Christina Haak. (b) They were in Tulpehocken Township in 1783-1786 where three of their children were born and baptized. They moved to Upper Paxton Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, where they attended Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church at Erdman where the last few children were born and baptized. They moved to Northumberland County, Pennsylvania about 1788 and are shown as taxpayers in Haines Township in 1804 and in Potter Township in 1806-1807, both in Centre County. Johannes Casper and his family moved to Fairfield County, Ohio now Perry County, Ohio. Johannes Casper was a citizen and voter in Perry County as early as 1816-1817. The distance from Stouchsburg to Erdham is about 32 miles. The distance from Erdman to Hublersburg is about 53 miles.

John Nicholas Emerick, married to Maria Barbara Riegel, came to Centre County about 1788, bought a farm from Jacob Ulse, later selling it to Peter Niece, and bought 307 acres in Walker Township, June 15, 1802. John was a farmer and a blacksmith. (d) There was a note in Fred McKinney’s handwriting, in the ‘loose leaf files on John Nicholas Emerick’ at the Centre County Library and Historical Museum at Bellefonte, Centre County’ that John Nicholas Emerick came to Northumberland County in 1788. The reference quoted is ‘Church Records at Christ Lutheran Church’ (Stouchsburg).

A more precise description would state that John Nicholaus Emerick came to Northumberland County in 1788 and settled in the area that was later Center Township, Center County in 1800 and then Walker Township, in 1810. Haines has him buying land from Peter Ulse while Fred McKinney has him purchasing it from Jacob Ulse. Fred McKinney is specific that the Ulse purchase occurred when he first arrived in Northumberland County and that the sale of this property to Peter Niece was followed by the purchase of the 307 acres in present day Walker Township. The 1790 Federal Census for Pennsylvania, Northumberland County, includes the names of a John Niece and a Michael Niece but no Peter Niece or Jacob Ulse.

In my opinion, John Nicholas Emerick is the John Emerick listed in the 1790 Census based (1) on the compelling evidence cited by Fred McKinney above, and (2) the fact that Johannes George’s and Johannes Casper’s family data do not match up as well with the census data as that of John Nicholaus. One free white male 16 and upwards, including heads of families, one free white male under 16 years and one free white female.

A question remains, however, as to where the older children were during the period 1788 to 1790; John Adam, born, July 29, 1786, baptized September 3, 1786, John, born September 17, 1786, baptized October 14, 1787, Maria Margaret Elizabeth, born, January 10, 1789, baptized January 12, 1789, all at Christ Lutheran Church, Stouchsburg, Berks County. Mary Magdalene, was born May 31, 1791 and no date or location of her baptism has been found. It may e that the male under 16 is John Adam and that John and Maria Margaret Elizabeth (1) were not included in the census or (2) remained in Berks County with relatives. In reviewing the literature on the Emericks in Northumberland County and later in Centre County during this period, there appeared to be some amount of travel between Tulpenhocken Township and what is now the area of Walker Township, notwithstanding the distance between these two locations, about 85 miles. Further work will need to be done in establishing the date of the land acquisition from Jacob Ulse and subsequent sale to Peter Niece. The question on John and Maria Margaret Elizabeth may never be resolved.

Catherine Emerick, born about 1793, daughter of John Nicholaus Emerick, married Michael Heckman in Centre County. (b) A Catherine Emerick, daughter of a Nicholas Emerick, was baptized September 27, 1800 at the Loop, Tusseyville, Centre County. Assuming that John Nicholaus Emerick resided in the Hublersburg area at that time, it was a distance of about 12 miles between Hublersburg and Tusseyville, over the Nittany Mountain. It may be that this is the same individual.

John Nicholas Emerick inherited one eighth of his father's estate. The will was probated February 11, 1813 in Berks County. (e)

Original Land Warranties were issued in the early 1800's in Centre Couty to John Emerick (the 1802 purchase), William McKinney, John McKinney, Samuel McKinney, Isaac McKinney and David McKinney.

There is a cemetery about a mile across the field known as the old Emerich and Dunkle cemetery from John Nicholaus Emerick's farm on the old Dunkle farm about one and one-half miles beyond Hublersburg or one and one half mules on this side of Syndertown where Elizabeth Emerick and her husband Henry Dunkle are buried. This is where I think John Nicholaus Emerick and John and their wives are buried. Only three stones in the cemetery, erected about 1860. About 15 or 20 graves are about four or five hundred feet back of the house. (d)

On July 26, 1999, I visited the Walker Township offices and obtained a map of the Township. The length of the Hublersburg - Snydertown Road is about three plus miles between the two towns. This road is bisected by State Route 64. The cemetery which Fred McKinney referred to above, is approximately three miles slightly southwest of Hublersburg on present day Heritage Lane. The owner of the farm is Deitrich. The cemetery is known as the Private Graveyard on the Dunkle Farm. There are no markers at the gravesite, but I did inspect a record of the tombstones, dated July 1929, at the Centre County Library and Historical Museum that listed 10 Dunkles, including Henry Dunkle and his wife (Maria Margaret) Elizabeth Emerich Dunkle. The librarian stated that the Graveyard is maintained and that a number of Emericks are buried there. While there, I also inspected a copy of the Petition for Partition in Walker Township, dated August 25, 1824.

Dunkle Farm (private) Walker Township. Directions: From intersection of Route 550 and 64 near Zion, it is 3.2 miles to farm lane on right side. It is located on this farm. (i)

The land that John Nicholaus Emerick acquired on June 15, 1802 was awarded to his children according to a Petition for Partition of Land in Walker Township, dated August 25, 1824. For John Emerick, son of Nicholas Emerick, deceased, who left a widow Barbara (Maria Barbara Riegel) and issue of six children (including Mary Magdalene Emerick married to John McKinney). Land consisting of 307 acres joins Francis McEwen, Samuel McKinney, James Clark, George Snyder and Jacob Candy. Messrs. McEwen, Clark, Snyder and Candy are not listed in the 1790 Federal Census in Northumberland County. As we shall see later in this memorandum, these individuals are listed in the 1810 Federal Census for Pennsylvania, Walker Township, either next to or near the listing for John Nicholaus Emerick.

Mary Magdalene Emerick and her husband John McKinney sold their interest in the family farm to John Emerick and Maria Margaret Elizabeth Emerick Dunkle and her husband Henry for $900 each (total $1,800) on June 30, 1824. (d) It appears that the sale was made prior to the formal award under the petition. Although Mary Magdalene Emerick and John McKinney sold their interest in 1824, they continued to reside in Walker Township, presumably in the area around Hublersburg and Snydertown, until they left around 1833 for Leatherwood, Porter Township, Armstrong County, later Clarion County. It is doubtful that they remained on the farm after the sale.

John McKinney removed to Leatherwood, Armstrong County, later Clarion County in 1833. (d)

OTHER RESEARCH

In the Mifflin County listing, William McKinney, one free white male of 16 and upwards, including heads of families, four free white males under 16 years of age and three free white females. William McKinney is located north of the Juniata River.

By way of information, a Michael Jack and a Jacob Jack are listed in Mifflin County, north of the Juniata River.

John McKinney a native of the Kingdom of Ireland and now an inhabitant of said county of Centre proffered his petition preying to be admitted a Citizen of the United States...... he did entirely renounce and abjure all allegiances and fidelity to any foreign prince potentate state or Sovereignty whatever particularly to George the third King of Great Britain and Ireland to whom he was heretofore a subject ....... David Craig, a citizen of the United States being duly sworn according to law says that he is well acquainted with John McKinney the within Petitioner. That to this deponents knowledge that the said Petitioner was residing within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States of America between the eighteen day of June one thousand seven hundred ninety eight and the fourteenth day of April one thousand eight hundred and two and has resided for more than one year in the State of Pennsylvania. David Craig X his mark. Fourteenth Day of April AD 1802. By Order of the Court 26 August 1806. (l)

I have been unable to locate any information on David Craig who purported to know John McKinney from the date of his apparent arrival in Northumberland County in June 1798. A question arises, that if this John McKinney had McKinney relatives in the area, why didn’t they sponsor his naturalization.

This John McKinney may be the grandfather of a Mrs. Gardner who was born at Pennsylvania Furnace, Center County, July 31, 1826. Her parents, William and Mary (McKinney) Newell were also natives of Centre County, where the maternal grandfather, John McKinney located on his emigration from Ireland. Later he became a resident of Clarion County and his death occurred in Rimersburg. Throughout his life he was engaged in the manufacture of cloth. William and Mary McKinney Newell came to Clarion County in 1841. Mary McKinney Newell died in 1862 at the age of sixty-five. (a) I would presume that John McKinney also came to Clarion County in 1841, however, I have not been able to locate either him or a William Newell in Clarion County in the 1850 or 1860 Federal Census for Pennsylvania. I also searched the census records of Ferguson Township (where Pennsylvania Furnace is located), Centre County for the year 1820 for a John McKinney but none was listed. As Mary McKinney Newell was born in 1797, John McKinney was born about 1775 to 1780 in Ireland. He would have been about 25 to 30 years of age on the date he was naturalized.

Robert Newell, with his family, came from Centre County and settled in Churchville, Monroe Township, (Clarion County)in 1821. (n) He may be related to William Newell but I have not been able to establish any relationship at this point.

John McKinney married Betsey Shultz (no residence given) on 25 August 1810, Reverend William Stuart. (o) This is not the John McKinney who was naturalized in 1806 as his granddaughter, Mrs. Gardner, was born in 1826. It may be his son, the father of Mrs. Gardner above. It is interesting that the year of this marriage is 1810 which is also the estimated date of the marriage of John McKinney to Mary Magdalene Emerick.

There is a John McKinney listed in Bellefonte Boro, Centre County in the 1830 Federal Census for Pennsylvania. There are two females of twenty and under thirty, one male of thirty and under forty, one male under five years of age and two females under five years of age. As Mary McKinney Newell was born in 1797 this John McKinney does not appear to be the same individual listed in the preceding paragraph. It is not the John McKinney listed in Walker Township in 1830.

Census Records For The
Years 1800, 1810, 1820 AND 1830

The 1800 Federal Census for Centre County, Pennsylvania - None Available


The 1800 Federal Census for Miles Township, Northumberland County, lists a John McKinney, one free white male 10 thru 15, one free white male 16 thru 25, one free white male 25 thru 44, one free white female under 10, one free white female 10 thru 15 and one free white female 26 thru 44. This may be John, father of Rachel McKinney (1799-1895), married to Samuel McKinney.

The 1810 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

Nicholaus Emerick: one male under 10, (unknown); one male 10 thru 15, David - 1795; three males 16 through 25, John Adam - July 29, 1786, John - September 17, 1787, (one unknown); and one male 45 and over, John Nicholaus - 1763; one free white female 10 thru 15, Catherine - 1793; and one free white female over 45, Maria Barbara Riegel 1765. Maria Margaret Elizabeth, baptized January 10, 1789 married Henry Dunkle about 1808 to 1809. Mary Magdalene, baptized May 3, 1791 married John McKinney about 1809 or 1810 and is included in the listing following.

John McKinney, is on the line immediately following Nicholaus Emerick I believe this is John McKinney married to Mary Magdalene Emerick. Listing is as follows: one free white male under 10, (unknown); one free white male 10 thru 15, (unknown); one free white male 16 thru 25, John - 1788; one free white female 16 through 25 Mary Magdalene Emerick - May 3, 1791.

Samuel McKinney appears eleven lines below the listing for John McKinney. Two free white males 16 through 25, Samuel - October 31, 1786, (one unknown); one free white female 16 thru 25 (one unknown) and one free white female over 45, probably Mary Llewellyn, widow of John McKinney and mother of Samuel. It would appear that John McKinney, the father, died prior to 1810 and that Samuel inherited the property.

Isaac McKinney: Listing includes, among other categories, two white females, 26 thru 44 – one of whom is his wife. I cannot account for the other female. His mother Rebecca Lane (1727-1823) is too old to fit in this category. Listing also includes one other free person and this may be Rachel McKinney (1799-1895) daughter of John McKinney, who is believed to have died young. Isaac and his wife may have been raising Rachel. She met her future husband, Samuel at Isaac’s house.

Francis McEwen in on the line above the listing for Nicholaus Emerick and Philip Walker is on the line below the listing for John McKinney.

The 1820 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

John McKinney: two white males under 10 years, Joseph - October 15, 1813, David June 10, 1817; one free white male ten and under 16 (unknown); one free white male twenty six and under forty five, John 1788; two white females under 10, Mary Catherine - 1812, Margaret - 1818; one free white female of 10 and under 16, Barbara 1811; one free white female twenty six and under forty five, Mary Magdalene Emerick - May 3, 1791. Two persons are listed as engaged in agriculture. I assume this is John and the unknown male, age 10 and under 16.

John Dunkle, Henry Dunkle, Jacob Emerick, John Emerick, Adam Emerick and their families are also listed.

Isaac McKinney, a family of eight including two white females of forty five and upwards. These are apparently the two females commented on above. Rachel McKinney – 1799, is now married, see following listing. Cannot account for Isaac’s mother, Rebecca Lane (1727-1823)

Samuel McKinney: one free white male under 10, one free white male twenty six and under forty five, Samuel October 31, 1786; one free white female of sixteen and under twenty six, Rachel - 1799.

Mary McKinney: one free white female twenty six and under forty five (unknown) and one free white female of forty five and upwards, Mary Llewellyn McKinney, mother of Samuel.

The 1830 Federal Census for Walker Township, Centre County, lists:

John McKinney: one male under five (unknown); one male of ten and under fifteen David - June 10, 1817; one male of fifteen and under twenty, Joseph - October 15, 1813; one male of thirty and under forty (unknown); one male of forty and under fifty John - 1788; three females of five and under fifteen, Sarah - March 31, 1821, Elizabeth - April 12, 1823, Susanna 1824; two females of fifteen and under twenty, Barbara - 1811, Mary Catherine - 1812; one female of thirty and under forty, Mary Magdalene Emerick - May 3, 1791.

Samuel McKinney: one male of five and under ten, one male of ten and under fifteen, one male of forty and under fifty, two females under five years of age, one female of five and under ten, one female of ten and under fifteen, one female of thirty and under forty.

Isaac McKinney is listed with a family of eight, including two females of sixty and under seventy. Again, the same question as in the 1810 and 1820 census listings above.

Mary McKinney: one male thirty and under forty, one female of thirty and under forty and one female of sixty and under seventy, Mary Llewellyn McKinney.

Henry Dunkle and family also listed.

The 1830 Federal Census for Centre County also includes a John McKinney in Logan Township and in Lamar Township.

Other

Frederick Roy McKinney, in his work, alludes to a Samuel McKinney as the father of John McKinney, born 1788, but does not cite any documentation. Following are some citations on individuals with the name Samuel McKinney

Samuel McKinney married Nancy Allen around 1797 in Williamsport. He died August 20, 1832 - may have been the son of David McKinney (1725-1785) of Sunbury and may have been the minor mentioned in Orphan’s Court Records of Sunbury at David’s death. Letter in loose-leaf files at the Centre County Library and Historical Museum at Bellefonte, from Alice McKinney Fisher, 501 Via
Casitas #523, Greenbrae, CA 94904, dated February 11, 1981. On the basis of the work I have done, David did not have a son name Samuel.

On August 28, 1798, a Samuel McKinney appears as a surety on Letters of Administration on the Estate on William Moore, Sr.

Samuel McKinney, of Scottish descent, from Bellefonte, married Eliza Flack. Their daughter, Mary A. McKinney married on February 19, 1852, John T. Johnston of Bellefonte. (a) Samuel McKinney of Bellefonte married Elize Flick on November 25, 1828, Reverend George Miles. (o) Samuel McKinney died when his daughter was ten years of age. Assuming that she was about twenty years of age when she married in 1852, then Samuel may have died around the year 1842. Assume further that he was about 20 years of age when he married, then his year of birth would be around 1810. There is only one Samuel McKinney listed in the 1830 Census in Centre County and that is Samuel, son the John the American Revolutionary War Veteran as discussed above. No Samuel McKinneys are listed in the 1840 Census in Centre County, Samuel McKinney, son of the American Revolutionary War Veteran, having moved earlier to Venango County.

While the reference to Scottish descent is interesting and, while there is a remote possibility that this Samuel is the younger brother of John, born about 1788, and that their father was named Samuel, I have not been able to establish this.

A ‘John McKinney’ is listed on the web site for The Church of the Latter Day Saints, (AN: 11ZX94B) born about 1762 in Ireland, married to an Ada (AFN:I IZX-95J) born about 1766 in Walker Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania. There are two sons listed, a William McKinney (AFN:1 SCB born 1789 in Pennsylvania and a John Nicholas McKinney (AFN:103D-GL4), born May 3, 1788, Walker Township, Centre County. William's wife is listed as Betsy and John's wife is listed as Mary Magdalene Emerick. The submitter is Harry James Divins, 34 Wakefield Drive, Medford, NJ, 08055. Address changed to 28 Pizzulo Road, Trenton, NJ 08690-3207. I talked to Harry by phone on June 9, 2002 and he informed me that he received this information from a relative and could not add anything further, at this time. He stated that he may have some information in his files and, if so, would let me know later.

The above John McKinney does not appear in the 1790 Census for Pennsylvania, Northumberland County as the number of individuals does not agree with the number listed in the census tabulation as enumerated above under John McKinney, the American Revolutionary War Veteran. The month and day of birth for John Nicholas McKinney is the same as that for Mary Magdalene Emerick, which does not appear to be correct. Also, the middle name 'Nicholas' appears to be somewhat unusual for a 'Scotchman by birth'. I have been unable to locate a William McKinney married to a Betsey.

There was an Elizabeth McKinney who died in Centre County in 1826. She was married to a James Clark who was on the Census Rolls in Walker Township in 1820 and 1830. After her death he remarried and moved to Venango County, Pennsylvania.

SOURCE

a. Commemorative Biographical Record of Pennsylvania, J.H. Beers, 1883, pages 1415, 1436 and 1441, 1588, 246, 112.

b. By the name of Emerich, Emerick, Emmerich, Emerich and Emrich, Kenneth D. Haines, Published Dayton, Ohio

c. Riegell to Riggle, A Genealogy, 1390 to 1995 by Carl Robert Riegel and James Earl Reigle. Penobscot Press, First Printing, May 1996.

d. Taken from notes prepared by Frederick Roy McKinney of Sligo, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, in 1928 and 1929 in his search for the ancestors of John Nicholus Emerick, a partner of John Jacob Astor. A copy of some of his work is also of file at the Centre County Library and Historical Museum, Bellefonte, Centre County, Pennsylvania.

e. Berks County, Pennsylvania, Wills and Testaments, 1800-1825, page 118)

f. Commemorative Record of Pennsylvania, Venango County, Pennsylvania, pages 825 to 827.

g. Eleventh Census of the Population of the United States Published by Boroughs and Townships, in Connection with a Business Directory of the Same, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, 1890.

h. Genealogical and Personal History of Allegheny Valley Pennsylvania, Editorial supervisor, John W. Jordan LLD, Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Volume 2 and 3. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York 1913.

i. Centre County Library, Spangler Book, page 57.

j. The Daughters of the American Revolution Lineage Books, DAR #81725, Mrs. Priscilla Anna Gosser, born in Franklin, Pa.

k. Excerpt from miscellaneous papers furnished by the descendants of Captain Andrew Lee of the American Revolution which appeared in Egle's Notes and Queries-1885, Volume I, pages 167-176.

l. Examination of the naturalization records for Centre County for the August Term in 1806, petition number 69.

m. Floyd’s Northumberland County Genealogy, pages 247 to 270.

n. History of Clarion County, Pennsylvania, A. J. Davis, Syracuse, N.Y., D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1887

o. Marriages 1800-1850, Centre County, Pa., by Harold O. Thomen, edited by Gladys C. Murray.

p. The Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Volume VIII, page 302.


Joseph Philip Rhein
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McKinney, John (I0027)
 
520 The Stewardship became hereditary in the family and was assured by Walter dropping the Norman name Alan as a surname with the single change of the final letter "d" to "t" so that the proper arthography of the name is not Stuart but Stewart. Mary Queen of Scots is responsible for the change of spelling of the name. She was educated in France and wrote her name in the French language in which the alphabet of which there is no "w". (Source - From a letter (original) dated April 3, 1890 to the Philadelphia Inquirer from the Reverend William R. Stewart of Philadelphia. New York Public Library) Stewart, Walter first of the surname (I0201)
 
521 THE STEWARTS IN IRELAND

"Amongst the many branches of the Stewart family that have been transplanted out of Scotland, there have been few that have attained to the degree of wealth and influence which this line of Ulster Stewarts reached in the 17th and 18th centuries. The principal seat was formerly at Newtown-Stewart, County Tyrone, which takes its name from Sir William Stewart, 1st Baronet, who was its founder, and the ruins of the castle of his descendants, the Lords Mountjoy, in the Elizabethan style though not dating back earlier than the middle of the 17th century, are still a picturesque feature of this beautifully situated little Ulster town.

Sir William first went to Ireland, as Captain Stewart, in the year 1608, as evidenced by the following entry in the register of the Privy Council of Scotland:

Edinburgh,
June 21, 1608.

Letter from the Council to the Governor of Knockfergus: Having ressavit directioun from our most sacred Soveraigne, the Mngis Majestie, to send over tua hundreth men of warr for assisting and furthering his Majisteis service "in that Kingdome . . . we have accordingly sent thame unto you under the charge of thir two gentilmen, Capitane Patrik Craufurde and Capitane Williame Stewart".

"In the following year Captain Stewart was strongly recommended by the King to the Lord Deputy of Ireland for special favour in the distribution of lands, at the Plantation of Ulster. A despatch to the Lord Deputy, in State Papers, Irish Series, bearing date 19th June 1609, conveys the message that His Majesty desires " extraordinary respect to be shown to him (Captain Stewart) when the distribution shall come It so that . . . he may therein be regarded before another".

Captain Stewart's name was, accordingly, included in the list of " Servitors " (i.e., persons in the Government service) recommended for grants of land at the Plantation, and on 30th November 1610, he was vested by Letters Patent with a it proportion" of 1,000 acres along the western shore of the upper part of Lough Swilly, Co. Donegal. This property was erected into the Manor of Stewart's Fort, and on it Captain Stewart constructed a fortified dwelling known by the name of Fort-Stewart," which became the residence of his youngest son, Thomas Stewart, and the latter's descendants till about the year 1780, when Sir Annesley Stewart, 6th Baronet, who had become head of the family in 1769, acquired a more commodious and modern type of residence, known as Brookehill, within a mile or two of the old fortified house. He changed the name of "Brookehill" to " Fort-Stewart," and this house remains the residence of his successor in the fourth generation, Sir H. J. U. Stewart, present and Ilth Baronet.

Captain Nicholas Pynnar's Survey 1618 of the Land Grants in the year 1608 in the Barony of Raphoe list William Stewart, brother of Lord Garlies, as receiving 1,500 acres in the Precint of Boilage and Banagh. County Donegal on the Net, list William Stewart, Esq. as receiving a land grant in the year 1608 in the Barony of Boylagh, County Donegal. (I am unable to explain the descrepancy in dates, locations and acreage. (Note to File - JPRhein)


A further letter from the King recommending Captain Stewart to the special attention of the Lord Deputy is in State Papers, Irish Series, under date of 26th January 1612-13, and this led to his being granted an additional proportion of 1500 acres in the Barony of Strabane, Co. Tyrone, which had been surrendered by the original grantee. He subsequently acquired, either by grant or purchase, further lands of large extent in the counties of Tyrone and Donegal. To his lands in the Barony of Strabane, Co. Tyrone, he gave the name of Newtown-Stewart estate; those in the Barony of Clogher in the same county, became the Mount-Stewart estate; and those in the Barony of Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal, were designated the Ramelton, Fanad, and Fort-Stewart estates. On the Mount-Stewart property he built the great castle of Aughentaine, which was destroyed during the disturbances which broke out in 1641. Mount-Stewart was officially renamed Fivemiletown about the beginning of the 19th century, and it figures under the latter name on present day maps. The ruins of Aughentaine Castle are shown a short distance to the north.

Captain Stewart was knighted at Royston in 1613, and was created a Baronet of Ireland in 1623. He played a large part in civil and military affairs in Ireland till his death late in 1646, and was a member of the Privy Council and a General in the army. He was succeeded as 2nd Baronet by his eldest son, Sir Alexander Stewart. The latter, besides being a military commander of considerable repute, wa's a zealous Covenanter, and is described in Patrick Adair's True Narrative of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 1623-1670, as " a gentleman of great integrity and fervent in propagating the gospel interest in the districts around Derry." Sir Alexander is chiefly known to history for having conducted the First Siege of Derry in the year 1649, when the city was held for the English Parliament by Sir Charles Coote." (Source - The Stewarts, Volume VI, The Stewarts In Ireland, Walter A. Stewart, London, S.W. 3, September 1, 1933)

The Right Honorable Sir William Stewart, 1st Baronet of Newtownstewart, County Tyrone, and Ramelton, County Donegal, went over to Ireland in 1608 as Captain commanding a company of Scottish troops sent to serve in that country. ( See Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, June 21, 1608) He is stated by Douglas of Glenbervied in his "Historical and Genealogical Tree of Royal Family of Scotland and name of Stewart", 1750 to have been a son of Archibald Stewart, 3rd laird of Fintalloch, who died around 1506 (On review this date may have been incorrectly copied by J.P. Rhein or it is incorrect. This will have to be checked further.) and whose family descended from Sir William Stewart, 2nd of Garlies (see Galloway Earl). (Source - Burke's Peerage and Baronetage)

Sir William Stewart was in great favor with King James VI, who in 1610 granted him 1,000 acres in the barony of Kilmacrean in County Donegal, Ireland, for the plantation of escheated lands in Ulster. William was a member of the privy council of King James VI and of King Charles I. He was a very prominent man in northern Ireland. He led the Ulster forces during the Irish rebellion of 1641 and decisively defeated Sir Phelim O'Neill on June 16, 1642. Sir William resided at Aughentean and Newtown-Stewart, County Tyrone. Among his many possessions was a demesne of 300 acres in County Donegal, upon which he built in 1618 a four story castle, called Ramelton, and a town consisting of 45 houses. (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Volume XI-XV, 1933-1938, page 141)

Sir William Stewart in 1613 bought 1,500 acres granted in 1610 to James Haig, gentleman, in the precinct of Strabane, County Tyrone. (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Volume XI-XV, 1933-1938, page 118)

"William Stewart, 1st Baronet Ramelton, started out as Captain William Stewart of Whithorn. He was granted lands under the Plantation scheme as a Servitor rather than an Undertaker, in reward for his military service in Ireland under King James I of England. He was granted 'Gortavagie' by James and also he received 'Ramelton' which had originally been granted to Sir Richard Hansard. Shortly thereafter he also took over the lands in County Tyrone of James Haig, which eventually became known as Newtownstewart, and later still land in Clogher Barony; also in County Tyrone, which he renamed Mount Stewart and which is now known as Fivemiletown. He married Frances Newcomen, and was knighted in 1623. He was made a Baronet of Ramelton in 1623 and died in 1646" (Source - Mary Stewart Kyritsis)

"Sir William Stewart emigrated to Ireland during the planation of Ulster, in the time of King James VI of Scotland who inherited the English throne as James I of England. Sir William married Frances Newcomer, daughter of Sir Robert Newcomer of Mosstown, County Longford. He sat in the Irish parliament for County Donegal in 1613-1615, and was created a baronet on May 2, 1623. He served with distinction against the Irish rebels in 1641 and 1642. He had at least two sons." (Source - Letter from Mary Hazeltine Cole)

"James I (of England) (1566-1625), king of England (1603-1625) and, as James VI, king of Scotland (1567-1625). Born in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567, he was proclaimed king of Scotland. He assumed actual rule in 1581. Scotland was at that time divided by conflict between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. James tried unsuccessfully to advance the cause of religious peace in Europe, but he repressed both Catholics and Protestants at various times. In 1586 James formed an alliance with his cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England. He replaced the feudal power of the nobility with a strong central government, and maintaining the divine right of kings, he enforced the superiority of the state over the church. In 1603 James succeeded Queen Elizabeth as James I, the first Stuart king of England. His belief in divine right led to prolonged conflict with Parliament. James authorized a new translation of the Bible, generally called the King James Version. James I was succeeded to the throne by his son, Charles I." (Source - The Encarta 99 Desk Encyclopedia Copyright 1998 Microsoft Corporation)

"After the first shock of the rebellion and the initial frantic defence measures, the Protestants began to hit back. For example, volunteers from the Laggan district, County Donegal, near Londonderry, launched a counter-attack in early summer 1642, organized by two brothers and professional soldiers, Sir William and Sir Robert Stewart. The Laggin men swiftly recaptured Strabane; relieved Lemavady, destroyed rebel bands in the Magilligan Peninsula, swept through Roe Valley and at the Gelvin Burn near Dungiven finally, relieving Colerain ." (Source - Ulster's Defence Tradition by Robert K. Campbell)

"The plantation of Ulster was fully planned by the English and Scottish Privy Councils in 1610. Land was assigned to British undertakers during April and May. Undertakers had to be in residence by September 1610, and to have fulfilled their conditions of settlement by Easter 1613. The enterprise attracted those pressed hard by the cost of living, in Scotland as well as England." (Source - Modern Ireland 1600-1972 by R. F. Foster)

"In 1600, Ulster was synonymous with wildness and untamed Gaelicism: separate by nature and geography, least inhabited, least developed economically, least urbanized. Less than two percent of the population of Ireland was of Scots or English descent; but by the early 1700s the proportion had soared to 27 percent." (Source - Modern Ireland 1600-1972 by R. F.Foster)

See Links Section on this site for "An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster at the Commencement of the Seventeeth Century 1608 -1620", by the Reverend George Hill. There is a specific reference to Sir William Stewart on pages 322,323,522,533,544 and 545. (Note to File -JP Rhein)

"The following excerpts are taken from The Adair Manuscript section: In May 1642, about 10,000 troops from the Scottish army were sent to Ireland by the Parliament of England. The Irish were rebelling and reportedly encouraged by "the Popish clergy and the Bishop of Raphoe". The King committed the managing of the war to the Parliament of England. The Presbyterian ministers were attempting to administer the "solemn League and Covenant to the army," but the Mayor of Derry sent a Captain Hepburn to the ministers to invite them to a conference in his chambers. "There he showed them a letter from the Parliament of England, recommending to them the taking of the covenant when it should come to the Scotch army and withal, a proclamation by those who then ruled in Dublin, prohibiting the taking of it and declared his great straits what to choose." It appears that no decision was made and the ministers left him' They soon "received another discouraging letter from Sir Robert Stewart, sent by Major Galbraith. It appears that the Presbyterian ministers continued to preach and administer the covenant to the people, which included many soldiers in the army. Mr. Phillips about Ballycastle (near Newtownlimabady), set himself against it, and did endeavor to dissuade the garrison thereabout from it. And Sir Robert Stewart, with Mr. Humphrey Galbraith, was using the same endeavours about Derry, having heard that the ministers were coming there. Afterwards the ministers went towards Enniskillen 'without sight of the enemy. For the Irish, who were protected, hearing the covenant was coming that way, fled, because they heard that the covenant was to extirpate all Papists, and was against protecting them."

They next went to Ramelton, where they received the rest of Sir William Stewart's regiment, and many of Colonel Mervyn's, contrary to his threatenings. also, one of those who opposed the covenant at Raphoe entered into it with apparent ingenuousness. From this place they returned to Derry, where Sir Robert Stewart, Colonel Mervyn and Major James Galbraith came now to hear the ministers preach and explain the covenant. A document dated on 14 December 1642, in the records of Fermanagh, Ireland: 'The last true Intelligence from Ireland; Being a true Relation of the great Victory lately obtained against the Rebels by Sir William Stewart, Colonel Sanderson, Colonel Mervyn, and Sergeant Major Galbraith against the great O'Neales and MacGwires Forces, wherein they slew great numbers of the Rebels, took 900 cows, 500 sheep, and 300 horses from the Rebels in the County of Fermanagh. Sir William Stewart understanding that a party of Oneales in the Kirrilrs Woodes, sent out Captain Balfoure, a deserving soldier, with a hundred men, who skirmished with them, killing fifty rebels, and lost but four of his own men, and took away four hundred cows from the Rebels. Some four days after Sir William Stewart desired Lieutenant Colonel Sanderson, Lieutenant Colonel Audley Mervin, and Sergeant-Major James Galbraith to march from Newtowne to relieve Ageer and Aghatyan, with five hundred foot and a hundred horse." (Source - The Redtower, Clan Galbraith Association International, Volume XX, No. 3, March 1999)

A copy of "The Stewarts" by Walter A. Stewart, 10 Durham Place, Chelsea, London, September 1, 1933, is filed in the research files of J. P. Rhein, Volume 4, Packet D. This is a 49 page detailed document dealing with these Stewarts in Ireland. It also contains several dissenting views as true line of descent of these Stewarts. (Note to file JP Rhein)

"GEORGE CRAWFURD (or Crawford), a Scottish historian with a bent for genealogy, whose works were published at Edinburgh in 1710 and around then, gave his opinion of the origin of the Mountjoy Stewarts in Ireland, several generations after those Stewarts were settled there. Apparently he got his information from conversations with fourth or fifth cousins of the Mountjoy branch-not from signed documents nor, of course, contemporary witnesses. Crawford named Archibald Stewart of Fintalloch, in Kirkcudbrightshire, but did niot trace his ancestry, because the descendants with whom he talked did not know it themselves. They dimly knew that they were cadets of the Stewarts of Garlies, because the earls of Galloway, who presented the eldest branch of that strain, were their super chiefs.

In the reigns of William & Mary and Queen Anne, when Crawford worked, the fame of the Lords Mountjoy, grandson and great-grandson of the first Sir William Stewart, was widespread. Anybody who could claim relationship to them was proud to do so. The Stewarts of Fintalloch whom Crawford talked with included particularly William Stewart of Culgruff, probably in Kirkcudbrightshire, secretary to the dukes of Queensberry, for it was he who first rook an interest in the Fintalloch ancestry and hired a genealogist, Rev. Andrew Symson, to look it up. This Willam Stewart of Culgruff was the eldest son of Archibald Stewart of Culgruff, second son of John Stewart of Shambellie, in Dumfriesshire. John was a son of John Stewart of Allans, son of John and Bessie (Newell) Stewart of Auchinleck. John was a younger son of Archibald Stewart, jr. of Fintalloch, second son of Archibald and Elizabeth (Kennedy) Stewart of Fintalloch. Archibald and Elizabeth's elder son was William, called Black William: he inherited the lease of Fintalloch, married Janet Gordon but left no issue, and died July 24, 1595, at the court of Queen Elizabeth. His brother Archibald succeeded to Fintalloch: he married a daughter of McLellan of Bombie and had these children, as listed by Crawford - Richard, who succeeded to Fintalloch ; John of "Allans", James, "ancestor of Archibald Stewart, the great Whig with the whiskers who lives in the Cowgate (Edinburgh)"; Robert, "ancestor of the Lords Mountjoy in Ireland"; and Archibald "of Heisilside. Crawford overlooked a son William and supposed that Robert, whose name, was quite as distinguished as William's in the early settlement of Ulster, was the great-grandfather of the Lord Mountjoy of his (Crawford's) time. He took a stab at it, and came as close as anybody could who depended on what he had heard." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, Volume 37, Number 6, December 1959)

THE PLANATION AND SETTLEMENT OF IRELAND

The following excerpts were taken from Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research Volume 1, Repositories and Records, by Margaret Dickson Falley, B.S., published by Genealogical Publishing Col, Inc. 1981.

"On the whole, the Plantation and Settlement of Ireland carried out the principal object of the Crown and the English Government (including that of the Commonwealth) over a period of one hundred and fifty years, to eventually subjugate Ireland by confiscation, and plant the realm with new land-lords, loyal to the State, who would supply revenue to the Government, maintain English law administered by representatives from England, and furnish protection by locally supported military forces. Thus the forfeitures of individual estates by "enemies of the State" are a part of the series of Plantation and Settlement records which set forth the changes in ownership and tenure of Irish lands.

The Presbyterians in Ireland were largely Ulster Scots. During two and a half centuries after the first plantation of Scottish Presbyterian colonies in Ulster, ca. 1606, they maintained a close connection with their homeland, while they remained a race apart from their Irish and English neighbors. They were hated by the Roman Catholics of Ulster, whose land they had usurped. They were despised by the English, whose Government and Established Church inflicted persecution upon them due to religious non-conformity.

The Ulster Scots kept their racial strain pure in matters of intermarriage. They sent their sons to Scotland to be educated for the ministry, etc. Many of them married there before they returned to Ulster. Thus they remained under the influence of Scottish religion, philosophy, and family ties to their early and some later generations.

While the Presbyterians who settled in Ulster were almost solidly Scottish, there were many English Puritans of Calvinistic doctrine who settled in Dublin and the South of Ireland. The English type of Presbyterianism lacked the more severe theology and discipline of the Scottish Church. Their congreations in Leinster and Munster were the outgrowth of the English Puritans and Independents of the Commonwealth period, left there without organization after the Restoration. These two sects united in 1696 and developed the Southern Association of the Presbyterian Church. This became the Presbytery of Munster and a part of the General Synod.

Historians of Church and local off airs, and the genealogists, have preserved a wealth of published and manuscript records regarding Presbyterian families and individuals.

A few points which may puzzle genealogists will be clarified by a brief review of the history of the Presbyterians and their problems, due to the laws of the realm regarding dissenters from the Established Church of Ireland. This will show that less than half of the Presbyterian families were permanently settled in Ireland before 1650. The Penal Laws and other Acts of Parliament, depriving Presbyterians of religious and civil liberty, were during some periods more rigorously imposed in Scotland than in Ireland, thus resulting in a large emigration to Ulster. At other times the Ulster Presbyterians were more severely penalized, causing several ministers and many Church members to return to Scotland. At all times until well into the eighteenth century, the religious laws and practices resulted in the entries of many records of baptism, marriage and burial, in the Parish Registers of the Established Church.

The first wave of Presbyterian settlers come to Ulster as leasers of the numerous Scottish proprietors who were granted estates by James I, 1605-1625. By patent of 16 April 1605, the northeast quarter of County Down was granted to Hugh Montgomery and the northwest quarter was granted to James Hamilton. This represented two-thirds of the estates forfeited by Con O'Neill, who later was forced to sell his remaining lands to the benefit of Hamilton and Montgomery. The southern part of County Down remained in Roman Catholic hands. The new proprietors were required by the Crown to live on their estates, build houses, churches, and bring English or Scottish settlers as tenants, able to bear arms for the King, build houses and develop their land. Hamilton and Montgomery brought emigrants from the Scottish counties of Ayre, Renfrew, Wigtown, Dumfries and Kirkcudbright. They began coming in May 1606. By 1610, Montgomery could muster 1,000 men for the King and in 1614, the two proprietors mustered 2,000 men, representing about 10,000 Scots settled in County Down.

Sir Arthur Chicester received a large portion in the southern part of County Antrim. In 1603, he was granted the "Castle of Belfast" and surrounding property. He soon afterward acquired land along Carrickfergus Bay and to the north almost as far as Lough Larne. He at first settled an English colony around Belfast, but before long the Scottish settlers predominated throughout the lower half of County Antrim. The upper half had been in the hands of the Macdonnell clan since about 1580. Soon after 1607, the area was granted to Randall Macdonnell who, in 1620, became the Earl of Antrim.

Scottish tenants also spread through his estates, being required to bear arms for the King and develop the land. The flight of the Ulster Earls of Tyrone and Tyrcommel with their Chiefs who were confederates, on 14 September 1607, gave James I the opportunity to confiscate their lands for past and present treason. The six counties of Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone, were escheated to the Crown. This great confiscation, of some 3,800,000 acres, lead to the carefully planned "Plantation of Ulster" between 1608 and 1620. Of this land, about 1,500,000 acres were only partly fertile and largely bog, forest, and mountain country. This was restored to the Irish Roman Catholic natives. Extensive grants were reserved for the bishops and their incumbents of the Established Church. Trinity College, Dublin, and other Royal Schools received about 20,000 acres. Land was also set aside for the corporate towns, forts, etc. The remaining half million acres of the most fertile land was reserved for colonization by English and Scottish settlers.

King James at first chose fifty-nine Scotsmen of high social standing and influence and nearly as many Englishmen, together with fifty-six military officers or "servitors" and eight-six natives, as undertakers who were to receive estates of 2,000 acres of less, in all counties but Londonderry which was reserved for the Corporation of the City of London. Eventually, by 1630, some undertakers acquired as much as 3,000 acres, and estates in County Londonderry came into private hands.

Through the influence of John Knox, the foundations of the Presbyterian Church were laid in Scotland and the first General Assembly was called in 1560. James VI of Scotland who succeeded to the English throne as James I, in 1603, was determined to strengthen the Established Church in Scotland. Melville, the leading Presbyterian of the time, was imprisoned in the Tower of London, and the General Assembly was forbidden to function. Presbyterian ministers and their adherents alike were severely persecuted by the bishops, to bring them under Church control.

At the same time, King James was anxious for a large settlement of English and Scots in Ireland. The latter came to Ulster for new land but also for religious liberty, attracted by the tolerant attitude maintained there by the bishops. The new Confession of Faith, sanctioned by Parliament for the Plantation Settlements, reconciled the differences between Anglicans and Presbyterians. It was Calvinistic in doctrine and allowed Presbyterian ministers to serve as clergy in the parish churches according to their own practices and beliefs. This encouraged the Scottish ministers to follow their countrymen to Ulster.

The easy cooperation of the bishops in Ulster changed after 1625, and the ministers preached under increasing restrictions. This came about through the influence of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, over Charles I. They were determined to tighten the control of the Established Church and this was reflected in Ireland.

To make matters worse, Wentworth (Earl of Strafford) was appointed to the Irish Vice-royalty and arrived in Dublin in 1633. He and his government began a reign of terror for Roman Catholics and Presbyterians alike. He followed Laud's policy to the letter. The earlier "Articles of Religion" were set aside and the ministers were required to adopt a Confession of Faith embodying the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. He further ordered the Act of Uniformity to be enforced against the ministers. This declared that every clergyman or minister celebrating any religious service other than that of the Established Church, every layman assisting at such a service and every person who opposed the liturgy of the Church, was liable on the third offense to confiscation of goods and imprisonment for life.

John M'Clelland, of Newtownards, was deposed but continued to preach, and was therefore excommunicated.

In 1636, Robert Blair, Robert Hamilton, John M'Clelland and John Livingstone organized a group of 140 Scottish settlers to emigrate to New England. They set sail in September, 1636, and when half way across, were driven back by storms. The ministers, to escape arrest, fled to Scotland, accompanied by many of their adherents. At this time Scotland had become a safe refuge.

The crowning blow to Ulster came in 1639 when the "Black Oath" was imposed. The clergy were required to read it from their pulpits and the people were forced to swear on their knees, if over age sixteen, to obey the King's commands and to abjure and renounce the Covenant. The clergy were ordered to report on every Presbyterian in each parish. Some conformed. Landed proprietors such as the Hamiltons and the Montgomerys betrayed their faith and joined the persecutors. Great numbers, who could re-establish themselves in Scotland, returned there. As many as 500 at a time returned to Scotland for the Communion season.

This persecution and departure of many Scots from Ulster saved hundreds of lives during the Rebellion which broke out in 1641. The Roman Catholics, determined to exterminate the English, also hated the Presbyterians for settling on their forfeited land. They tortured and murdered thousands and drove others out of their homes to die of privation. Reprisals by the settlers, and a Scottish army sent to Ulster, were equally devastating.

Following the Rebellion, after 1652, the Presbyterians came from Scotland to Ulster in great numbers, owing to the unsettled conditions while Cromwell was attacking the Scottish Royalists. Some, who had fled Ulster during the early years of the Rebellion, returned after Scottish forces made their safety more assured. When peace was established, Cromwell at first held the Presbyterians suspect for having supported the Royalist cause. After a little time they were allowed to flourish and many of their ministers were permitted to preach under ecclesiastical control of the new State Church. By 1658, there were eighty congregations and seventy Presbyterian ministers organized into five Presbyteries and a General Synod.

The Presbyterians who were in Ulster in 1659, if settled in one of the counties of Antrim, Armagh, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry or Monaghan, are listed in A Census of Ireland, circa 1659, edited by Seamus Pender, Dublin, 1939. Records for the counties of Cavan and Tyrone are omitted, due to the fact that the original documents were not preserved.

Following the restoration of Charles II, in 1660, he who had pledged his loyalty to the Presbyterian Church when Scotland crowned him king, soon after his father's execution in 1649, now betrayed his word. He and his Parliament returned the Established Church to power. Its lands and churches, taken by the Commonwealth Government, were restored to the extent they were owned in 1641, and the bishops with their clergy regained their positions." 
Stewart, Sir William (I0183)
 
522 The Stewarts of Appin are a West Highland clan descended from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, the son of Alexander, High Steward of Scotland. Sir John's younger son, Sir James fought at Bannockburn and was eventually killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. (This information was taken Scottish Clans and Families, Electric Scottish Conferencing System.)

"Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl fought under William Wallace for the freedom of
Scotland and took part in the Battle of Sterling in 1297 when the English army was defeated.

Commanded the men of Bute at the Battle of Falkirk.

He bore the brunt of the overwhelming assault of the English army on the field of Falkirk where he was killed and buried. A gravestone still exists bearing this inscription. "Here lies a Scottish hero, Sir John Stewart, who was killed at the Battle of Falkirk, 22nd July 1298."
(Source - New York Public Library, Loose Leaf Files, The Stewarts.)

The English force had over three thousand cavalry and a considerable number of archers. Waiting at Falkirk, William Wallace had gathered only half as many men, mostly armed with spears, backed by a modest cavalry made up predominantly of a number of nobles, led by Sir John Comyn, known as the 'Black Comyn'. When the combat began of 22 July 1298, the Scots used their schiltron formations of spear men in variable squares. Under the ferocity of arrows, then cavalry, the patriots were soon annihilated. The self-interested noble men on horseback would not come into the combat to support Wallace and their men and instead left the area. (Source - SDI Clans and Tartans, 1996)  
Bonkyl, Sir John Stewart of (I0199)
 
523 THE STEWARTS, VOLUME 21 No. 2 (2001), pages 97 to 100.
By Henry Stewart Fothringham

Walter Fitz Alan
The family tree of the
First High Steward of Scotland

The problem of who exactly was Walter Fitz Alan, Ist High Steward of Scotland, has perplexed many minds over the years and several different conclusions have been reached by different genealogists. Part of the problem has been the sparseness of the data and the different interpretations capable of being put upon them, compounded by what looks to some like deliberate obfuscation of the facts. In this brief paper the writer throws down the ancestral gauntlet for historians to pick up and challenge their own pre-conceived ideas by re-examining all the available sources with an open mind. The editor looks forward to receiving informed responses on both sides of the debate.

Genealogists up to the eighteenth century seemed happy to accept that the Stewarts were descended from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber. This was derived principally from Hector Boece's History of Scotland and the Chronicles of Holinshed but they both drew on older material for their narratives. The latter was the source used by Shakespeare for Macbeth.. These notions, which accorded with the 'Secret Knowledge' preserved by only a very few persons at any one time, were also supported by a 'folk memory' of the events and by ancient lore and legend, but by very little documentary evidence. The idea was subsequently discredited by the discovery of seemingly conflicting evidence.

The idea that supplanted the Thanes of Lochaber thesis was that the Stewarts were descended from the Senescalls of Dol in Brittany and there is certainly evidence to support this interpretation. The evidence was brought together and published by George Chalmers in his Caledonia (1807-24), the manuscripts of which are now in the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh. What has not been generally realised, however, is that there is room for both interpretations, not forgetting that Walter son of Alan had a mother as well as a father. Victorian genealogists seemed to have had a fixation about patrilinear descent, quite overlooking the fact that the maternal lines were of equal, or even greater, importance in early times. The principle by which a cousin or nephew on the mother's side usually succeeded as king persisted in the Scottish monarchy for hundreds of years. Further, the new theory propounded in Chalmers' Caledonia so busied the minds of genealogists trying to prove it to be true that they forgot about trying to disprove the old theory; had they tried to do so they would have found that it was not going to lie down and die as quietly as they expected. At about this point also, conspiracy theory kicks in, suggesting that the House of Hanover wished deliberately to suppress the Scottishness of the Stewart ancestry in favour of a European descent.

The genuine confusion was begun by mixing up two people called Alan, who turn out to be Walter's father and his maternal grandfather, and treating them as one and the same person. Because of this it was assumed that the older Alan was his father, whereas he was actually his mother's father. Walter's father was Alan, Thane of Lochaber, who died in about 1155. Walter's mother was Adalina of Oswestry, daughter of Alan Fitz Flaald de Hesdin, Sheriff of Shropshire (d. c.1122). It is therefore through his mother and not his father that Walter was descended from the Senescalls of Dol. That line of ancestry can be traced back an astonishingly long way, to the lst century AD and, if we are to believe the 'Secret Knowledge', even further. According to what you choose to believe, the descent goes back, like the famous Macleod family tree at Dunvegan with which it merges, at least as far as Adam and Eve.
On his father's side Walter's male line of descent leads back through, among other people, Fleance, Banquo (his great-great-grandfather) and King Aedh to Kenneth MacAlpin (10 generations) and thence back through that family tree, once again arriving rather optimistically at Adam and Eve. The reason for the descent from Banquo having been discredited since the late eighteenth century was that it was assumed to conflict with the Dol descent, whereas the two are perfectly compatible, as shown in the accompanying genealogical table.
Adelina's father, Alan de Hesdin, was Flaald, hereditary Steward of Dol in Brittany. In the early 1100s Alan was Baron of St Florent, Saumur; his early forebears were the Counts of Brittany, who were kin to the Merovingian Kings of the Franks. It is with Flaald and his wife that the genealogical confusion usually stems. Flaald was married to Aveline, daughter of Arnulf, Seigneur de Hesdin, but some peerage registers (including Burke's and the 1858 History of Shropshire) erroneously show Aveline as having been the wife of Flaald's son, Alan. The fact appears to be, however, that Alan Fitz Flaald was born with the 'de Hesdin distinction inherited from his mother, Aveline (Ava) of Picady. Her status is confirmed in the Cliartulary of St George, Hesdin. When Aveline's father, Arnulf (brother to Count Enguerrand de Hesdin), joined the crusade in 1090, Aveline became his nominated deputy in England. She was known as the 'Domina de Norton' (the Lady of Norton) and her son, Alan Fitz Flaald, was Baron of Oswestry during the reign of Henry I. As correctly detailed by Chalmers in his Caledonia, Alan was married to Adeliza, the daughter and heiress of SheriffWarine of Shropshire, thereby inheriting that office. Warine's arms consisted of a field azure and argent, the same tinctures as the fesse adopted by his Stewart descendants. This, and not the supposed chequer-board theory, was the true origin of the Stewart arms.

Alan de Hesdin's uncle (Flaald's brother) was Alan, hereditary Seceschal of Dol, who was a Crusade Commander and died on crusade in 1097. From his son, William Fitz Alan, the Fitzalan earls of Arundel descended, while his daughter, Emma, married Walter, Mormaer (or Thane) of Lochaber, the son of Fleance and grandson of Banquo. Walter of Lochaber died fighting at the side of Malcolm Canmore at Alnwick in 1093. Some sources make the error of showing him as being High Steward, which is either a blunder or, more probably, a 'pious' invention to enhance status.

From this initial marriage between the Scots and Breton families (c.1085) emerged Alan, Thane of Lochaber. Born c. 1088, he cemented a further alliance with the Breton house by marrying Adelina, daughter of Alan Fitz Flaald. It was their son, Walter, who succeeded to the Shropshire inheritance. By virtue of his Lochaber heritage and responsibilities, Walter was summoned to Scotland by his friend, David I, in c. 1136 and one of his first task was to guard the western coast from Loch Linnhe to the Firth of Clyde against the Norse invasions. On 22 August 1138 he fought at the Battle of the Standard, near Northallerton in Yorkshire, when the Scots were heavily defeated.
Banquo's son, Fleance, was the first husband of Princess Nesta of Gwynedd but, after Fleance's death, Nesta married Osbern Fitz Richard, grandson of Guiomarc, Comtede L6on, who held substantial estates in Dol. In later life, Guiomarc became a Benedictine monk of St Florent at Saumur, where Flaald of Dol was to become the Baron. Indeed, the family ties were very close, which is how Osbern came to marry Nesta.

In 1080 Flaald and his brother, Alan, Seneschal of Dol, consecrated St Florent Abbey. Two years later their younger brother, Rhiwallon of Dol, a monk, became its Abbot. In 1102 Flaald was present at the dedication of Monmouth Priory and Flaald's son, Alan de Hesdin, founded Sporle Priory in Norfolk as a cell of St Florent Abbey. Powerful families habitually intermarried with their close cousins in order to consolidate their power and possessions; Osbern and Nesta's son, Hugh, married Eustacia de Say of Clun, while William Fitz Alan married her sister, Isabel de Say. As previously stated, William's own sister, Emma, married Walter of Lochaber, son of Fleance and Nesta. This all sounds fearsomely complicated but the essential lines are much more easily followed in the genealogical table.
The writer is grateful to Laurence Gardner for permission to use his research and to Prince Michael of Abany for permission to reproduce the genealogical table. It was the exertions of Laurence Gardner which have brought this matter to public attention once more. He researched, among many other neglected sources, the family archives of Germaine Elize Segers de la Tour dauvergne and her husband, Michael Stewart of Annandale; the pre-1792 records of Lyon Court (publicly available on request); the Diocesan Archives of Angers; the Chartulary of St George at Hesdin; and the Chrtulary of St. Florent.

The following tables give a skeletal lay-out, generation by generation, as far back as Aminadab on Walter's mother's side and on his father's side to Ere of Dalriada. Among the early names there are many variations in spelling and some people have more than one name.

I: Patrilinear Descent of Walter the High Steward

Note.- each succeeding generation is the son of the previous one.
24.Ere of Irish Dairiada (Dal naraide)
23.Fergus Mor Mae Ere, d.501
22.Domangart
21. K. Gabran of Dalriada, c.548-558
20.Aedan Mac Gabran, d.608, m. Ygerna de Acqs
19.Eochaid Buide (younger brother of the historical King Arthur)
18.Donald Brec
17.Domangart
16.Eochaid, d.696
15. Eochaid
14. Aed the White (Aed Find)
13.Eochaid the Poisonous, d.781
12. Alpin
11. K. Kenneth MacA]pin
10. K. Aed (Aeth), d.878
9.Doir, b.870-d.936
8.Murdoch, b.900-d.959
7.Ferguard, b.929-d.980
6.Kenneth, b.960-d.1030
5.Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, b.990-k.1043
4.Fleance, Thane of Lochaber, b.1020-d. c.1064
3.Walter, Thane of Lochaber, b. c.1045-d.1093
2.Alan of Lochaber, b. c. 1088-d. 1 153, father of-
1.WALTER FITZ ALAN, 1st HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND, d. 1177

II: Maternal Descent of Walter the High Steward

Note.- each succeeding generation is the son of the previous one,except for 2. Adelina, who was Alan's daughter.
34.Aminadab, 2nd century A.D., m. Eurgen, dau. of Lucius, son of K. Coel I.
33.Castellors
32.Manael
31.Titurel
30.Boaz (Anfortas)
29.Frotmund, k.404
28.Faramund, Lord of Franks, d.430
27.Fredemund
26.Nascien I, K. of the Septimanian Midi
25.Celedoin
24.Nascien II, K. of the Septimanian Midi
23.Galains
22.Jonaans
21. Lancelot
20. Bars the elder
19.Bars the younger
18.Lionel
17.Alain
16.Froamidus, Count of Brittany, c.762
15.Frodaldus, Count of Brittany, c.795
14.Frotmund, b.850
13.Flotharius
12. Adetrad
11.Frotbald, c.923
10.Alirad
9.Frotmund, c.982
8.Fretaldus, c.1008
7.Frotmund Vetuies, c. 1052
6.Fratmaldus the Senechal
5.Alan, Seneschal of Doi
4.Flaald, Seneschat of Doi
3.Alan Fitz Flaald, de Hesdin
2.Adelina of Oswestry, motliet- of-.
1.WALTER FITZ ALAN, 1st HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND, d. 1177
 
n'Aride), Erc of Irish Dalrida (Dal (I2816)
 
524 THE STEWARTS, VOLUME 21 No. 2 (2001), pages 97 to 100.
By Henry Stewart Fothringham

Walter Fitz Alan
The family tree of the
First High Steward of Scotland

The problem of who exactly was Walter Fitz Alan, Ist High Steward of Scotland, has perplexed many minds over the years and several different conclusions have been reached by different genealogists. Part of the problem has been the sparseness of the data and the different interpretations capable of being put upon them, compounded by what looks to some like deliberate obfuscation of the facts. In this brief paper the writer throws down the ancestral gauntlet for historians to pick up and challenge their own pre-conceived ideas by re-examining all the available sources with an open mind. The editor looks forward to receiving informed responses on both sides of the debate.

Genealogists up to the eighteenth century seemed happy to accept that the Stewarts were descended from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber. This was derived principally from Hector Boece's History of Scotland and the Chronicles of Holinshed but they both drew on older material for their narratives. The latter was the source used by Shakespeare for Macbeth.. These notions, which accorded with the 'Secret Knowledge' preserved by only a very few persons at any one time, were also supported by a 'folk memory' of the events and by ancient lore and legend, but by very little documentary evidence. The idea was subsequently discredited by the discovery of seemingly conflicting evidence.

The idea that supplanted the Thanes of Lochaber thesis was that the Stewarts were descended from the Senescalls of Dol in Brittany and there is certainly evidence to support this interpretation. The evidence was brought together and published by George Chalmers in his Caledonia (1807-24), the manuscripts of which are now in the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh. What has not been generally realised, however, is that there is room for both interpretations, not forgetting that Walter son of Alan had a mother as well as a father. Victorian genealogists seemed to have had a fixation about patrilinear descent, quite overlooking the fact that the maternal lines were of equal, or even greater, importance in early times. The principle by which a cousin or nephew on the mother's side usually succeeded as king persisted in the Scottish monarchy for hundreds of years. Further, the new theory propounded in Chalmers' Caledonia so busied the minds of genealogists trying to prove it to be true that they forgot about trying to disprove the old theory; had they tried to do so they would have found that it was not going to lie down and die as quietly as they expected. At about this point also, conspiracy theory kicks in, suggesting that the House of Hanover wished deliberately to suppress the Scottishness of the Stewart ancestry in favour of a European descent.

The genuine confusion was begun by mixing up two people called Alan, who turn out to be Walter's father and his maternal grandfather, and treating them as one and the same person. Because of this it was assumed that the older Alan was his father, whereas he was actually his mother's father. Walter's father was Alan, Thane of Lochaber, who died in about 1155. Walter's mother was Adalina of Oswestry, daughter of Alan Fitz Flaald de Hesdin, Sheriff of Shropshire (d. c.1122). It is therefore through his mother and not his father that Walter was descended from the Senescalls of Dol. That line of ancestry can be traced back an astonishingly long way, to the lst century AD and, if we are to believe the 'Secret Knowledge', even further. According to what you choose to believe, the descent goes back, like the famous Macleod family tree at Dunvegan with which it merges, at least as far as Adam and Eve.

On his father's side Walter's male line of descent leads back through, among other people, Fleance, Banquo (his great-great-grandfather) and King Aedh to Kenneth MacAlpin (10 generations) and thence back through that family tree, once again arriving rather optimistically at Adam and Eve. The reason for the descent from Banquo having been discredited since the late eighteenth century was that it was assumed to conflict with the Dol descent, whereas the two are perfectly compatible, as shown in the accompanying genealogical table.
Adelina's father, Alan de Hesdin, was Flaald, hereditary Steward of Dol in Brittany. In the early 1100s Alan was Baron of St Florent, Saumur; his early forebears were the Counts of Brittany, who were kin to the Merovingian Kings of the Franks. It is with Flaald and his wife that the genealogical confusion usually stems. Flaald was married to Aveline, daughter of Arnulf, Seigneur de Hesdin, but some peerage registers (including Burke's and the 1858 History of Shropshire) erroneously show Aveline as having been the wife of Flaald's son, Alan. The fact appears to be, however, that Alan Fitz Flaald was born with the 'de Hesdin distinction inherited from his mother, Aveline (Ava) of Picady. Her status is confirmed in the Cliartulary of St George, Hesdin. When Aveline's father, Arnulf (brother to Count Enguerrand de Hesdin), joined the crusade in 1090, Aveline became his nominated deputy in England. She was known as the 'Domina de Norton' (the Lady of Norton) and her son, Alan Fitz Flaald, was Baron of Oswestry during the reign of Henry I. As correctly detailed by Chalmers in his Caledonia, Alan was married to Adeliza, the daughter and heiress of SheriffWarine of Shropshire, thereby inheriting that office. Warine's arms consisted of a field azure and argent, the same tinctures as the fesse adopted by his Stewart descendants. This, and not the supposed chequer-board theory, was the true origin of the Stewart arms.

Alan de Hesdin's uncle (Flaald's brother) was Alan, hereditary Seceschal of Dol, who was a Crusade Commander and died on crusade in 1097. From his son, William Fitz Alan, the Fitzalan earls of Arundel descended, while his daughter, Emma, married Walter, Mormaer (or Thane) of Lochaber, the son of Fleance and grandson of Banquo. Walter of Lochaber died fighting at the side of Malcolm Canmore at Alnwick in 1093. Some sources make the error of showing him as being High Steward, which is either a blunder or, more probably, a 'pious' invention to enhance status.

From this initial marriage between the Scots and Breton families (c.1085) emerged Alan, Thane of Lochaber. Born c. 1088, he cemented a further alliance with the Breton house by marrying Adelina, daughter of Alan Fitz Flaald. It was their son, Walter, who succeeded to the Shropshire inheritance. By virtue of his Lochaber heritage and responsibilities, Walter was summoned to Scotland by his friend, David I, in c. 1136 and one of his first tasks was to guard the western coast from Loch Linnhe to the Firth of Clyde against the Norse invasions. On 22 August 1138 he fought at the Battle of the Standard, near Northallerton in Yorkshire, when the Scots were heavily defeated.
Banquo's son, Fleance, was the first husband of Princess Nesta of Gwynedd but, after Fleance's death, Nesta married Osbern Fitz Richard, grandson of Guiomarc, Comtedelon, who held substantial estates in Dol. In later life, Guiomarc became a Benedictine monk of St Florent at Saumur, where Flaald of Dol was to become the Baron. Indeed, the family ties were very close, which is how Osbern came to marry Nesta.

In 1080 Flaald and his brother, Alan, Seneschal of Dol, consecrated St Florent Abbey. Two years later their younger brother, Rhiwallon of Dol, a monk, became its Abbot. In 1102 Flaald was present at the dedication of Monmouth Priory and Flaald's son, Alan de Hesdin, founded Sporle Priory in Norfolk as a cell of St Florent Abbey. Powerful families habitually intermarried with their close cousins in order to consolidate their power and possessions; Osbern and Nesta's son, Hugh, married Eustacia de Say of Clun, while William Fitz Alan married her sister, Isabel de Say. As previously stated, William's own sister, Emma, married Walter of Lochaber, son of Fleance and Nesta. This all sounds fearsomely complicated but the essential lines are much more easily followed in the genealogical table.

The writer is grateful to Laurence Gardner for permission to use his research and to Prince Michael of Abany for permission to reproduce the genealogical table. It was the exertions of Laurence Gardner which have brought this matter to public attention once more. He researched, among many other neglected sources, the family archives of Germaine Elize Segers de la Tour dauvergne and her husband, Michael Stewart of Annandale; the pre-1792 records of Lyon Court (publicly available on request); the Diocesan Archives of Angers; the Chartulary of St George at Hesdin; and the Chartulary of St. Florent.

The following tables give a skeletal lay-out, generation by generation, as far back as Aminadab on Walter's mother's side and on his father's side to Ere of Dalriada. Among the early names there are many variations in spelling and some people have more than one name.

I: Patrilinear Descent of Walter the High Steward

Note.- each succeeding generation is the son of the previous one.
24.Ere of Irish Dairiada (Dal naraide)
23.Fergus Mor Mae Ere, d.501
22.Domangart
21. K. Gabran of Dalriada, c.548-558
20.Aedan Mac Gabran, d.608, m. Ygerna de Acqs
19.Eochaid Buide (younger brother of the historical King Arthur)
18.Donald Brec
17.Domangart
16.Eochaid, d.696
15. Eochaid
14. Aed the White (Aed Find)
13.Eochaid the Poisonous, d.781
12. Alpin
11. K. Kenneth MacA]pin
10.K. Aed (Aeth), d.878
9.Doir, b.870-d.936
8.Murdoch, b.900-d.959
7.Ferguard, b.929-d.980
6.Kenneth, b.960-d.1030
5.Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, b.990-k.1043
4.Fleance, Thane of Lochaber, b.1020-d. c.1064
3.Walter, Thane of Lochaber, b. c.1045-d.1093
2.Alan of Lochaber, b. c. 1088-d. 1 153, father of-
1.WALTER FITZ ALAN, 1st HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND, d. 1177

II: Maternal Descent of Walter the High Steward

Note.- each succeeding generation is the son of the previous one,except for 2. Adelina, who was Alan's daughter.
34.Aminadab, 2nd century A.D., m. Eurgen, dau. of Lucius, son of K. Coel I.
33.Castellors
32.Manael
31.Titurel
30.Boaz (Anfortas)
29.Frotmund, k.404
28.Faramund, Lord of Franks, d.430
27.Fredemund
26.Nascien I, K. of the Septimanian Midi
25.Celedoin
24.Nascien II, K. of the Septimanian Midi
23.Galains
22.Jonaans
21. Lancelot
20. Bars the elder
19.Bars the younger
18.Lionel
17.Alain
16.Froamidus, Count of Brittany, c.762
15.Frodaldus, Count of Brittany, c.795
14.Frotmund, b.850
13.Flotharius
12. Adetrad
11.Frotbald, c.923
10.Alirad
9.Frotmund, c.982
8.Fretaldus, c.1008
7.Frotmund Vetuies, c. 1052
6.Fratmaldus the Senechal
5.Alan, Seneschal of Dol
4.Flaald, Seneschat of Dol
3.Alan Fitz Flaald, de Hesdin
2.Adelina of Oswestry, mother of
1.WALTER FITZ ALAN, 1st HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND, d. 1177

* * * * *

"The Stewarts" Vol. 23 No.3, 2010, contains an interesting and well documented article, 'The Archbishops of Dol and the Origin of the Stewarts' by Paul A. Fox. It makes the case that the Stewart forebears, paternal and maternal lines, were from Dol and differs significantly from the the conclusions reached by Frothringham above.

It states that Walter Fitz Alan's father was Alan Fitz Flaald de Hesdin. Frothringham shows him as Walter's grandfather. It was his daughter, Adelina of Oswestry, who was Walter Fitz Alan's mother and she married Alan Thane of Lochaber. At this time I have elected to stay with the conclusions reached in the Frothringham article. (Note to File -JP Rhein)  
Aminadab (I2834)
 
525 The Thomas Henry Simpson Memorial Institute for Medical Research combined medical research and patient care activities, providing research experience for medical and postgraduate students, direct care to its patients on the third floor, and consultant services to patients at the University Hospital. Among its contributions were the development of a new agent for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the isolation of vitamin B-12, improved understanding of the use of blood and blood substitutes in the treatment of shock, and insights into the causes and treatments of leukemia and other neoplastic diseases of the blood.

A gift to the University by Catherine MacDonald Simpson as a memorial to her husband, a Detroit industrialist who died of pernicious anemia, the building, designed by Albert Kahn, now serves the Department of Internal Medicine and the Historical Center for the Health Sciences in their research activities.
 
Simpson, Thomas Henry (I2162)
 
526 The Web Master Family F0001
 
527 The web site of the Church of the Latter Day Saints (www.familysearcj.com) contains erroneous information on Lieutenant William Stewart and his son John Stewart, born February 3, 1769 in West Pennsboro Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.

POSITION IN THE LISTING IN THE
CHURCH OF THE LATTER DAY SAINTS

The LDS listing for William Stewart (Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania) has three submitters. There are also additional submitters on some of Lieutenant William's children. There are 12 children in the LDS listing, with two females named Mary. Number seven, Mary Stewart, born March 3, 1774, is in error. Lieutenant William and Mary Gass had 11 children and in each and every listing the place of birth is incorrect. Additionally, John's date of birth is incorrect. Lieutenant William's will was probated in Mercer County in 1811 so the date of death of February 15, 1831 is in error. They were married in 1760 in Chambersburg, Cumberland County, now Franklin County, Pennsylvania. They were not married in Armstrong County.

The listing for Mary Stewart, born June 8, 1802 in Isle of Skye, Inverness, Scotland is incorrect. She is simply not a descendant.

The listing for Eleanore Donaldson Steuart's showing place of birth as Northumberland, Lycoming, Pennsylvania is a conventional listing. That is, Eleanore was born in 1778 in that area of Northumberland County that is now Lycoming County. Northumberland County was formed in 1772 and Lycoming was formed in 1795. I do not doubt that Eleanore Donaldson Steuart is the daughter of Archibald Stewart as it is listed in LDS Family Tree. I had come across his name some years ago as I searched for Charles Stewart, brother of Lieutenant William. I have no reason to doubt that this line from Eleanor Donaldson Stewart is incorrect, except that John Stewart, son of Lieutenant William is not Eleanore's husband.

Armstrong County was formed in 1796 from Northumberland County. That part of Northumberland County that is now Armstrong was not generally inhabited until after 1796. There is no Armstrong in Washington County. There is a small village named Armstrong located on the western end of Butler County adjacent to Armstrong County but I doubt that it was settled at that time.

Washington County was formed, July 15, 1781, some 12 years after the birth of John. At the time of his birth it was Cumberland County and a portion of it was part of Virginia. While not a significant matter, most researchers would list the location of birth, in this case, as 'Cumberland County (portion thereof acquired from Virginia) later becoming Washington County'. At that time Washington County included all of Greene County. Most of the settlers were Scots-Irish from Cumberland, Lancaster and Philadelphia Counties to the east and a number came directly from the Province of Ulster in Ireland.

If the John Stewart listed in this site were from Washington County, it may be that he was one of a number of settlers and their families from that area who went north in Pennsylvania to acquire so called 'Donation or Depreciation Lands'. The Pennsylvania Act of 1783 set aside the territory west of the Allegheny River and north of the Ohio River into two grant sections, intended as donations to the Revolutionary soldiers of the Pennsylvania Continental Line, and for the redemption of the certificates of depreciation given to them for their pay. The purpose of this act was to comply with the original promise of a bonus to soldiers. The Donation Land included parts of the present counties of Lawrence, Butler, Armstrong, Venango, Forest, Warren and Erie, and the whole of Crawford and Mercer Counties. "The lands north of Pittsburgh reserved for the Pennsylvania Continental Line were called the Donation Lands. Certificates were also issued to Pennsylvania troops entitling them to cheap lands in compensation for the ravages of inflation on their pay; these were called Depreciation Lands. Most soldiers sold their rights rather than settle on the lands." (Source - The Depreciation and Donation Lands, Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 8, 1925. John E. Winner). I suspect that he probably migrated from present day Lycoming County and that he may have been a son of someone in the Pennsylvania Continental Line. It is almost certain that he is not the son of Lieutenant William Stewart.

THE GENERALLY ACCEPTED POSITION

According to "A Family of Millers and Stewarts", by Robert F. Miller, St. Louis, Missouri, 1909, Lieutenant William was taxed in Hamilton Township, Cumberland County, Province of Pennsylvania as early as the year 1770. {Miller is listed in "Builders of Our Nation - Men of 1913" with an impressive curriculum vitae.} In 1784 Lieutenant William is also taxed as owning a Fulling Mill in Guilford, which is outside Chambersburg. It is believe he acquired the mill, or a part interest therein, left by his father-in-law, Benjamin Gass. It is believed Lieutenant William went west to Washington County, Pennsylvania, sometime after 1784, with his family including his older sons, Benjamin and Galbraith. According to the family bible that was in the possession of Mrs. Clarissa Pentecost Eagleston, Columbus, Ohio, as late as 1964, "John Stuart was born in Feb. 3thd. 1769". He was born in West Pennsboro Township, Cumberland County. Around the time that the family left for Washington County, John would have been about 15 years of age. Washington County, excluding the portion discussed in the following paragraph, was formed in 1781 from Westmoreland County, which in turn was formed in 1773 from Bedford County, which in turn was formed in 1771 from Cumberland County.

The French and Indian War was raging in the western part of the Province of Pennsylvania during the period 1754 to 1763 (the latter date is six years before the birth of John and two years before the date of birth of the oldest child). General Braddock and his British troops were massacred in 1756 in present day Washington County on their way to Fort Duquesne in present day Pittsburgh. There were few white settlers in the area prior to 1770. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, my 6th great-grandfather, John McKibben and his family were living in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania near the present site of Apollo, which is about 50 miles from the center of present day Washington and Greene Counties. It was on this farm that he built a stockade where the settlers took shelter from the raiding Indians. Later this stockade was fortified and name Fort Hand. The fort burned in the fall of 1779 and the McKibbens moved to Mt. Pleasant Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1781. There is additional information on Fort Hand in the "Draper Manuscripts" now in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society. "Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania" by Clarence M. Busch, 1896 also comments on conditions in that area around that time. His granddaughter, Sarah McKibben, married William Stewart, my 3rd great-grandfather, son of Lieutenant William. They were married on October 18, 1802 in Buffalo, Washington County. John McKibben, his wife and son, Samuel, are buried at the Presbyterian cemetery in Cross Creek Township, Washington County. John McKibben's will, dated August 28, 1798, was proved October 30, 1798.

According to the "History of Washington County, Pennsylvania" by Boyd Crumrine, Philadelphia, Pa., L. H. Levents, & Co., 1882, "One of the earliest settlers in the present limits of Hopewell Township was Jesse Martin in the year 1772." West Middleton Borough, originally part of Hopewell Township was formed in February 1780 under a certificate granted from Virginia. When Lieutenant William went to Washington County with his family, and older sons and their families, they settled in West Middleton Borough, originally a part of Hopewell Township. Crumrine states further, "One of the first settlers in the area was Galbraith Stewart who carried on his trade at Mt. Hope, now in Independence Township." Miller, in his book, on page 30, in writing about Galbraith Stewart, says, "His brother John conducted the farm while several of his son in laws managed his other interests". No date is given but it is reasonable to assume that John was at least 18 years of age. This would place John in Washington County as early as the year 1785 but not later than 1787. Galbraith Stewart's daughter, Mary, born 1793, married Thomas McCall, born 1768, some 25 years her senior. This would explain the fact that one of Galbraith's sons in law was old enough to handle part of his interests.

"Galbraith Stewart resided at West Middletown, Hopewell Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania, where he kept the first hostelry in the village in 1795. His name appears a number of times in the land records of Brooke County, Virginia (now West Virginia), where he bought and sold lots in Charlestown (now Wellsburg)". (Source Stewart Clan Magazine, Volume XI-X-V, 1933-1938, page 308) "Galbraith Stewart was practically the founder of the prosperous town of West Middletown. He learned the blacksmith's trade and married Elizabeth Scott." (Source - History of Washington County, Pennsylvania, Beers, page 969). Galbraith Stewart is also on land records as purchasing property in Eastern Ohio, near the Ohio River, across from the Wellsburg area.

According to "The Ancestry and World War I Letters of William Galbraith Stewart, Jr., (1896 - 1935)" Wilkinsburg, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, "John lived with his older brother, Galbraith, managed the Stewart farm in West Middletown where he died and was buried in Lower Buffalo, Washington County, Pennsylvania." Mrs. Phoebe Murdock of West Middletown recorded that John married Mary, widow of James Welch, who was born in 1757 and died 28 Aug 1829. Her records also indicate that there were two daughters as follows: (1) name unknown, married Greenbury (?) Lane; (2) Polly.

According to "Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion Co., Pennsylvania" by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, May 1995, (Stewart - page 8), "John married Mary (nee?) (March 21, 1757-August 2, 1829) widow of James Welch. John moved from Washington County to Ohio about 1810 or 1811. He had a daughter who married a Greenbury Lane and a daughter named Polly."

Heber Rankin (1898-1969) was a very knowledgeable and a thorough researcher. He is my 3rd cousin once removed. In 1967 he sent to my Mother a summary of the history of the Stewarts. The Stewart community following Lieutenant William is fortunate to have Janice edit and publish a portion of over 30 some years of his work.

The Pennsylvania 1790 Federal Census lists a William Stewart in Washington County with two white males 16 years and upward. This would have been Lieutenant William and John, age 21. Benjamin, age 28 and Galbraith, age 23, are accounted for separately. There are three white males under 16 years of age. This would have been William, my 3rd great-grandfather and Robert and George who later went to Mercer County with Lieutenant William and Mary Gass.

A Mary Welch is listed in the 1790 Census in Hopewell Township with two white males under 16 years of age and three white females under 16 years of age.

According to some reports, John and Mary Stewart moved to Ohio about 1810, yet their graves are said to be in the Lower Buffalo Cemetery, Washington County, Pennsylvania. I had always thought that John Stewart and Mary (nee?) Welch went to Ohio, occupying or purchasing one of the parcels of land that Galbraith Stewart acquired. As this is not in my direct line, I have not pursued it further.

The above summary makes a compelling case that the John Stewart listed in the LDS web site, married to Eleanore Donaldson Steuart, is not the son of Lieutenant William. (Note to File - JP Rhein)




 
Stewart, John II (I0127)
 
528 The will of Thomas Stewart, probated November 1, 1881, was in the possession of Mrs. (Lydia) Glenn Slaugenhaup of Sligo, Clarion County, Pennsylvania on July 20, 1959.

(Source - Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1995) 
Stewart, Lydia Males (I0460)
 
529 Theodore Hartford Lawson July 7, 1970 Madison Twp., Clarion Co.,Pa. New Kensington, Pa. 65 yrs 2mo 10 days Unknown
Burial Cemetery Lot Section Undertaker
7-11-1970 Lawsonham J. D. Miller

Survivors
1 daughter, Mary Louise Lawson
1 step-son, Arthur Ciampa
2 sisters, Lucille L. McColgan, Carolyn Bain
1 brother, J. Donald Lawson

His dog, Pepe, died 2 days prior to his death, so Pepe is buried with him and listed on his (Ted's) tombstone. dob - 4-27-1905

1st wife- Evelyn Sarah Stewart
2nd Wife - Frances Marinac
Father - Reed T. Lawson
Mother - Elzetta Smith
 
Lawson, Theodore Hartford (I4133)
 
530 There is a John C. Turney, age 33, Monroe Township, Clarion County, who is listed on the 1860 Federal Census for Pennsylvania, Series M 653, Roll 1095, enumerated July 23, 1860. He was born in Pennsylvania. His wife is listed as Nancy with her age as 25. There is one child, John M., age three months. It would appear that Jane Emerick McKinney also used the name Nancy Jane and/or Jane. (Note to File - JP Rhein} Turney, John C. (I0083)
 
531 There is a record of Simon Riegle at the Historical Society of Reading. He guarded captured Red-Coats. Riegel, Simon (I0068)
 
532 Thirty Years' War

"Thirty Years'War, series of European conflicts lasting from 1618 to 1648, fought mainly in Germany. The struggle was initially based on the religious antagonism engendered among Germans by the Protestant Reformation, but it was later influenced by other issues, including dynastic rivalries.

Religious tensions were aggravated in Germany during the reign (1576-1612) of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, as Roman Catholics persecuted Protestants. In 1608 Protestant princes and cities formed the Evangelical Union, a defensive alliance, and in 1609 Catholics founded the rival Catholic League. Conflict began on May 23, 1618, when Protestants in Prague threw two of Bohemian king Ferdinand II's ministers out a window. This act, known as the Defenestration of Prague, began a Protestant uprising that spread throughout the empire. The Bohemians then bestowed Ferdinand's crown on Frederick V, causing dissension in the Evangelical Union, because Frederick was a Calvinist. In 1620 Ferdinand, who had become Holy Roman emperor, sent a Catholic League army, led by German soldier Johann Tserclacs, graf von Tilly, to rout the Bohemians at the battle of the White Mountain, near Prague. Bloody reprisals against the Protestants followed, and Protestantism was outlawed.

The war assumed international proportions when German Protestant states sought foreign assistance against the resurgent Catholicism. Christian IV, king of Denmark and Norway, came to the aid of the German Protestants. He mobilized a large army in the spring of 1625 and invaded Saxony. In the meantime Albrecht von Wallenstein, duke of Friedland, had gathered a powerful army and entered the service of Ferdinand II. Wallenstein's mercenaries won their first victory in April 1626. In August 1626 Tilly defeated Christian's army, and Catholic forces overran northern Germany, destroying towns and villages.

Gustav II Adolph of Sweden, a zealous Lutheran, entered the conflict in the summer of 1630. Meanwhile, Tilly, who had been given command of Wallenstein's army, laid siege to Magdeburg, Germany, and sacked the city in 1631, massacring the Protestant inhabitants. Gustav routed Tilly's troops, killed Tilly, and eventually captured Munich, Germany. Faced with complete disaster, Ferdinand called on Wallenstein to command the imperial war effort. Wallenstein's army invaded Saxony in 1632. Gustav died at a battle in Lutzen, Germany, but his army forced Wallenstein's army to withdraw. In 1633 Wallenstein struck repeated blows against the Swedish strongholds in Silesia. Toward the close of 1633 Wallenstein attempted to make peace and was assassinated by his own officers. The imperial armies then defeated the Swedes at Nordlingen, Germany, in 1634. The Peace of Prague (1635) ended the third phase of the war.

In its final phase, the battle was for hegemony in western Europe between the Habsburgs and France, which was under the leadership of cardinal and statesman Richelieu. In May 1635 France declared war against Spain, the chief Habsburg dominion aside from Austria. Between 1636 and 1645 Swedish forces allied with France scored numerous triumphs, overrunning Denmark, western Germany, and Austria. The French were also successful, routing the Spanish in 1643 and destroying a Bavarian army in 1644. In 1647 Maximilian I of Bavaria concluded the Truce of Ulm with Sweden and France. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III refused to capitulate, however, and fighting continued throughout the remainder of 1647. Maximilian I reentered the war on the side of the empire, but further defeats forced Ferdinand to agree to the peace.

The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which finally ended the conflict, fundamentally influenced the subsequent history of Europe. The treaty weakened the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburgs, ensured the emergence of France as the chief power on the Continent, and delayed the political unification of Germany.

Encarta@ 98 Desk Encyclopedia @ & (D 1996-97 Microsoft Corporation.
All rights reserved. 
Jr., Christoff Emmerich (I0635)
 
533 This farm site was purchased by William Stewart in the 1830's from the Delp family. It was given by William Stewart to his son, Robert Stewart, who also owned the adjacent farm and who then gave this parcel to his son, Frederick Shick Stewart, who in turn gave it to Burton Harold Stewart, who in turn gave it to Grover Lloyd Stewart. (Note to File by J.P. Rhein)  Stewart, Grover Lloyd (I2065)
 
534 This listing was taken from "A Family of Millers and Stewarts". It is not correct. I have listed it here for future reference. See Histories, The Search for William Stewart II for details on this. (Note to File - JP Rhein) Stewart, Samuel (I4279)
 
535 Thomas Hobard Craig January 21, 1958 Sligo, Pa. Passavant Hospital, Pa. 61 yrs
Burial Cemetery Lot Section Undertaker
1/23/1958 Rimersburg Hawk Funeral Home, Sligo, Pa.
Survivors Notes
Daughters; Mrs. Agnes Males, Mrs. Annabelle Prichard, Mrs. Elsie Grazier, Mrs. Mary Wright, Louella and Barbara Craig Sons; Charles Edwin, Thomas, Herbert, Wade and Robert Craig Three brothers and seven sisters survive. Srvices were held from the funeral home dob- 7-20-1896 Son of Charles F. and Minnie Mae Anderson Craig
Married in 1917 to Mary Agnes Hartman

 
Craig, Thomas Hobart (I2914)
 
536 Thomas Stewart, born about 1630, was no more outstanding in history than his brothers Robert and William, except that he married a Montgomery, a daughter of John of Croghan, and had a distinguished son, Col. William Stewart of Fort Stewart. Eventually the baronetcy came to this younger branch. Sir William in his will devised to his son Thomas the 1000-acre Fort Stewart estate in County Donegal, on the upper shore of Lough Swilly, and here Thomas lived in the house which his father had built and fortified in pristine days. He bore the title of captain, although his military activities are obscure. No inkling of the date of his death has been given, nor the names of his children other than 'William, save Rev. Samuel Stone, in his manuscript account of his Stewart line, said that, William Stewart of Baltylawn, County Donegal, married a daughter of Mr. Stewart of Fort Stewart. Among Thomas's children were: William c.1665; Nov. 25,1693, Mary Ann Hopkins; daughter M. c.1692, William Stewart of Ballylawn. (Source - Stewart Clam Magazine, Tome H, Volume 37, Number 7, January 1960)

Thomas was the youngest son of Sir William. The Civil Survey of 1654, Donegal County, Barony of Kilmacrenan, lists Thomas Stewart, Esqr, Scotts Protestant, Beseidger of Derry as the proprietor of Rameltan, Parish of Aghneish and of Carrocuilt, Gortcally, Kairne, Clounly, Glenmore, Glenbeg, Drumomaghan, and Downmore of Parish Tully, and in the Parish of Conwell, Ards, Brechy, Cornisk, and Buragh. In the Parish of Clandevadock, it lists Thomas Stewart, Esqr. to "claimeth the sd. lands of Will and Testamt. of his father Sr. Wm. Stewart, Scotts Protestant, a Beseidger of Derry:" the lands Carlan, Bellimcgown, Knockbreake, Carran, and Drumfield.

The Civil Survey describes the village of Rameltan with a Church and a burnt castle, and there is therein a "Bawne" called Fort Stewart and an old Abbey called Killidonnell. Within the Parish of Conwell is the "Towne called Litterkenny (sic) which hath a market every Friday and two faires in the yeare with a large dwelling stone house having a Bawne, a fair Church and a bridge at the end of the towne over the river Swilly."

The Census of 1659, Donegal, lists Thomas Stewart, Esqr. as the Tituladoes of Ramelton, Parish of Auchnich. Fort Stewart is located about seven miles Northeast of Letterkenny, County Donegal, and slightly Southeast of Ramelton. Letterkenny is about 25 miles Northeast of the town of Donegal. The estate manor house built by Sir William is in the Vale of Leanan just Southeast of Ramelton.

The term 'Titulado', which appears in early Irish census records, refers to the principal person or persons of standing in any locality; such a person could have been of either sex, a nobleman, baronet, gentleman, esquire, military officer, or adventurer. A Titulado may have been a land-owner, but did not necessarily own land.


 
Stewart, Thomas (I0182)
 
537 Thompson Werntz: Sex: Male. He was employed as a Worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad as an
apprentice to his father and took his father's position aftr his father's death. 
Yost, Thompson Werntz (I9744)
 
538 Toby Twp, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania [2, 3]
Gender Female
Obituary BENN, Anna M.

Anna Mary Benn, 86, died Friday, October 31, 1947, at her home on Ninth Street, Clarion, Penna.

Mrs. Benn, a daughter of William Parker and Salina (FACKENDER) STEWART, was born April 13, 1861 in Toby Township, Clarion County. She had been a resident of Porter Township since early girlhood until three years ago when she moved to Clarion.

She was married to John S. BENN, who died some years ago.

She is survived by two daughters, Miss Iva BENN, of Clarion, and Mrs. Blanche MALES, R.D. New Bethlehem. Three grandchildren and four great grandchildren also survive.

Mrs. BENN was a member of the Reformed Church of Curllsville.

Funeral services were held Sunday afternoon at two o'clock at the Stewart Funeral Home in Rimersburg with the Reverend H. R. LEQUEAR officiating. Interment was made in the Rimersburg cemetery.
Died 31 Oct 1947 Pennsylvania [2, 3]
Buried Rimersburg, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania; Rimersburg Cemetery
Person ID I3043 HrrsCshn
Last Modified 06 Apr 2003 00:00:00

Father William Parker Stewart, b. 1832, Pennsylvania
Mother Salina E. Fackender, b. 1830, Pennsylvania
Family ID F2046 Group Sheet

Family John Franklin Pierce Benn, b. 30 Jan 1853, Reidsburg, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania
Married 25 Dec 1884 [3]
Children > 1. Iva M. "Ivy" Benn, b. 25 Jul 1885, Porter Twp, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania
> 2. Lily Blanche Benn, b. 6 Jul 1887, Toby or Porter Twp, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania
3. Robert Nelson Benn, b. 1891, Porter Twp, Clarion Co, Pennsylvania
4. Cora Alice Benn, b. Abt 1893,

 
Stewart, Anna Mary (I0554)
 
539 U..S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006
Name: Richard Alan Stewart
Service Info.: LT US NAVY WORLD WAR II
Birth Date: 15 Dec 1926
Death Date: 29 Aug 2004
Cemetery: Concord Cemetery
Cemetery Address: Parker, PA 16049

 
Stewart, Richard Alan (I1889)
 
540 U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006
Name: Connell McCall Stewart
Service Info.: AN US NAVY WORLD WAR II
Birth Date: 12 Nov 1927
Death Date: 19 Sep 2003
Service Start Date: 12 Jun 1946
Service End Date: 9 Apr 1948
Interment Date: 10 Nov 2003
Cemetery: Florida National Cemetery
Cemetery Address: 6502 SW. 102nd Ave. Bushnell, FL 33513
Buried At: Section 1b Row 9b Site 16


 
Stewart, Connell McCall (I2971)
 
541 U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006

Name: Franklin M Stewart
Service Info.: SGT US ARMY WORLD WAR II
Birth Date: 15 Oct 1920
Death Date: 13 Jan 1999
Cemetery: Greenwood Memorial Park
Cemetery Address: 350 Monroe Ave NE Renton, WA 98056

 
Stewart, Franklin Monroe (I3953)
 
542 U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006
Name: George Pence
Service Info.: PVT F 103 PA INF
Death Date: 17 Aug 1864
Cemetery: Andersonville National Historical Site
Cemetery Address: Route 1, Box 800 Andersonville, GA 31711
Buried At: Site 5910

Andersonville Prisoners of War
Surname: George Pence
Rank: PRIVATE
Company: F
Regiment: 103
State: PA
Arm of Service: INFANTRY
Death Date: 17 Aug 1864
Cause of Death: DIARRHEA C.
Remarks: GEORGE PENCO, H 9 MN, MINNESOTA [3]
Reference: p 27 [3]; p 716 [9]; p 381 [101]
Location of Capture: PLYMOUTH, NC
Date of Capture: 20 Apr 1864
Page: 180
Notes: PENCO
More Information: NO
Code: 15910
GRAVE: 5910


 
Pence, George (I3742)
 
543 U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006
Name:Jeremiah Z Brown
Service Info.:MAJ US ARMY CIVIL WAR
Birth Date:7 Nov 1839
Death Date:19 Feb 1916
Cemetery:Squirrell Hill Cem
 
Brown, Jeremiah Zachariah (I1222)
 
544 U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946

Name: Donald E McKinney
Birth Year: 1927
Race: White, citizen (White)
Nativity State or Country: Pennsylvania
State: Pennsylvania
County or City: Clarion

Enlistment Date: 16 Jun 1945
Enlistment State: Pennsylvania
Enlistment City: New Cumberland
Branch: No branch assignment
Branch Code: No branch assignment
Grade: Private
Grade Code: Private
Term of Enlistment: Enlistment for the duration of the War or other emergency, plus six months, subject to the discretion of the President or otherwise according to law
Component: Reserves - exclusive of Regular Army Reserve and Officers of the Officers Reserve Corps on active duty under the Thomason Act (Officers and Enlisted Men -- O.R.C. and E.R.C., and Nurses-Reserve Status)
Source: Enlisted Reserve or Medical Administrative Corps (MAC) Officer

Education: 2 years of high school
Civil Occupation: Student Codes 0x, 2x, 4x and 6x as pertain to students will be converted, for machine records purposes, to the code number 992.
Marital Status: Single, without dependents

 
McKinney, Donald Eugene (I3955)
 
545 U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946

Name: Franklin M Stewart
Birth Year: 1920
Race: White, citizen (White)
Nativity State or Country: Oklahoma
State: Missouri
County or City: Douglas

Enlistment Date: 12 Sep 1940
Enlistment State: Missouri
Enlistment City: Springfield
Branch: Signal Corps
Branch Code: Signal Corps
Grade: Private
Grade Code: Private
Term of Enlistment: Enlistment for the Philippine Department
Component: Regular Army (including Officers, Nurses, Warrant Officers, and Enlisted Men)
Source: Civil Life

Education: 4 years of high school
Civil Occupation: Automobile Serviceman
Marital Status: Single, without dependents
Height: 71
Weight: 147

 
Stewart, Franklin Monroe (I3953)
 
546 United States of America, Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1930 Source (S264)
 
547 United States of America, Bureau of the Census, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900 Source (S268)
 
548 Unless noted otherwise, all information on the descendants of John Miller born 1773 in Chester County, Pennsylvania, was furnished by Alec Stewart. Miller, John (I3721)
 
549 Unless otherwise noted all information on Charles W. McElravy and his descendants was taken from Ancestry.com. (Note to File - JP Rhein) McElravy, Charles W. (I4059)
 
550 Unless otherwise noted all information on George Williams McDonald and his descendants was obtained from Ancestry.com. (Note to File - JP Rhein) McDonald, George Williams (I3656)
 

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