- THE ORIGIN OF THE STEWARTS
(This article is in some conflict with the line of descent as published by Henry Stewart Fothringham, The Stewarts, Volume 21, No 2 (2001), pages 97 to 100 which is set forth in its entirety in the Notes Section under Aminadab, the first in the maternal line of descent of Walter Fitz Alan, The First High Steward of Scotland. I have elected to retain Round's work here as a matter of record. Note to File - JP Rhein)
By J. Horace Round, taken from "Studies in Peerage and Family History,
Westminster, Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1901, pages 115-146
Of the problems upon which new light is thrown by my Calendar of documents in France relating to English history, none, probably, for the genealogist, will rival in interest the origin of the Stewarts. It has long been known that the Scottish Stewarts and the great English house of Fitz Alan possessed a common ancestor in Alan, the son of Flaald, living under Henry the First. This was established at some length by Chalmers in his _Caledonia_ (1807) on what he declared to be "the most satisfactory evidence."* [*Vol. I, pp. 572-575] According to him, "Alan the son of Flaald, a Norman, acquired the manor of Oswestrie, in Shropshire, soon after the Conquest," and "married the daughter of
Warine, the famous sheriff of Shropshire." Mr Riddell, the well-known Scottish antiquary, followed up the arguments of Chalmers, in 1843, with a paper on the "Origin of the House of Stewart,"* [*_Stewartiana_, pp. 55-70] in which he accepted and enforced the views of Chalmers,
including his theory that Walter Fitz Alan brought with him to Scotland followers from Shropshire and gave them lands there. But research has hitherto been unable to determine the origin of Flaald father of Alan, or even to find, in England, any mention of his name.
No less an authority on feudal genealogy than the late Mr Eyton devoted himself to a special investigation on the subject of Alan "Fitz Flaald,"* [*_History of Shropshire_ (1858), VII. 211-232] and arrived at the conclusion that, after all, he was a grandson of "Banquo, thane of Lochaber,", whose son "Fleance" fled to England. "My belief is," Mr Eyton wrote, "that the son of Fleance was named Alan ... and that he whom the English called Alan Fitz Flaald was the person in question."* [*_Ibid_, p. 227. It is essential to bear in mind that the old Scottish writers made Walter, the first Steward, a son of 'Fleance', wholly _ignoring_ Alan his real father (see p. 119 below). This invalidates their whole story.] He admitted, however, of the priories of Andover, Sele, and Sporle, cells of the Abbey of St. Florent de Saumur, that he could "show a connection between Alan Fitz Flaald or his descendants and each of these cells* [*_Ibid_, p. 219], which suggested an Angevin origin, and for which he could not account. But where he really advanced our knowledge was in showing that Alan Fitz Flaald married, not (as alleged) a daughter of Warine the sheriff, but Aveline daughter of Ernulf de Hesdin, a great Domesday tenant. I have now been able to trace Ernulf to Hesdin (in Picardy) itself, in connection with which his daughter 'Ava' also is mentioned.* [*See Preface to my Calendar, p. xlviii.] In 1874, an anonymous work, _The Noman People_, approached the problem from the foreign side, and adduced evidence to prove that Flaald was a brother of Alan, seneschal of Dol. But there was still not forthcoming any mention of Flaald in England, while the rashness and inaccuracy which marred that book resulted in his being wrongly pronounced a "son of Guienoc." The great pedigree specially prepared a few years ago for the Stuart exhibition by Mr W. A. Lindsay (now Windsor Herald) still began only with Alan son of Flaald, to whom a daughter of Warine the sheriff was assigned as wife. Moreover, in the handsome work on _The Royal House of Stuart_ (1890), which had its origin in that exhibition, Dr. Skelton could only tell us that "there was (if the conclusions of Chalmers are to be accepted) an Alan son of Flathauld, a Norman knight, who soon after the Conquest obtained a gift of broad lands in Shropshire" (p. 5). Alan, we shall find, was not a Norman; the lands he was given were widely scattered; and he did not obtain them "soon after the Conquest.".
The latest authoritative statement on the subject is that, it would seem, of Sheriff Mackay in the _Dictionary of National Biography_ (1896).* [* This passage is found in the biography of the first Stewart king, so that I only lighted upon it after this paper was written. It gave me the clue to Mr. Hewison's book, of which I had not previously heard, but which I have now read just in time to add his results to this paper (24th Jan., 1900).] He tells us, of the House of Stewart, that "Its earlier genealogy is uncertain, but an ingenious and learned, though admittedly in part hypothetical, attempt to trace it to the Banquho of Boece and Shakespeare, Thane of Lochaber, has been recently made by the Rev. J. K. Hewison (_Bute in the Olden Time_ Vol. II, pp. 1-38, Edinburgh, 1895).* [*Vol. XLVIII, p. 344.]"
Mr Hewison's volume opens with the words:
"The origin of the royal house of Stewart has long remained a mystery, perplexing historical students, who feel tantalized at knowing so little concerning the hapless victim of the jealousy of King Macbeth -- Banquo, round whom Shakespeare cast the glamour of undying romance, and to whom the old chroniclers of Scotland traced back the family of Stewart." The author's 'glamour' augurs ill, and in spite of the unique advantage he enjoyed in having access to the late Lord Crawford's MS. collections on the subject, we soon find ourselves wandering, alas, with Alice in Wonderland. "It may be concluded that Walter, the son of Fleadan, son of Banchu, is identical with Walter, son of [A]llan (or Flan), son of Murechach of the Lennox family, if not also with Walter, son of Amloib, son of Duncan of the oher genealogy. Chronology easily permits of the equation of Murdoch, the Maormor of Leven ... with Banchu ... who might have survived even his son Fleance -- we, meantime, only assuming that Fleance was slain in Wales. _Ban-chu_, the pale warrior, would be his complimentary title; the old surname of his family ... also descended to his son, _Flan-chu_, the red or ruddy warrior, known to his Irish kinsmen as Fleadan."
We are surely coming to the _Man-chu_ dynasty. But no. "This Irish form of the name _Fleadan tan_ (i.e. either Fleadan the Tanist or Fleadan the younger) imports a significant idea -- namely, _flead_ ... a feast, which corresponds in signification with _Flaald_
Then there bursts upon us yet another discovery:
"_Fleanchus_ ... is the Latinised form of _Flann-chu_, the Red or Ruddy Dog ... and is also a sobriquet -- the Bloodhound. ... This nomenclature is evidently a reminiscence of the dog-totem or dog-divinity, etc., etc." There remains, however, the standing puzzle* [*See p. 116, note 2, above. It will be seen that to assert, as here, that Alan and 'Fleance' were the same will not overcome this difficulty.] why Walter the first Stewart was made by the old romancers a son of Fleance son of Banquo, though his father was indisputable Alan son of Flaald. One solution offered by our author is that "Ailin or Allan may have become the family name"; but his own view is that
"The native name of Banquo's son would be the common Goidelic one _Flann_, which signifies rosy or fair, and has an equivalent in _Aluinn_, beautiful, fair, to which the word Alan, both in Britanny and Ireland, may be traced."
Thus it was that 'Flann' would become 'Alan' in Britanny, "more especially when, in the vulgar tongue of Dol, the former, denoting a pancake, would sound like a nickname." And if we should still have our doubts, is there not, at Dol, to this day -- "an imposing edifice, built of granite, in the purest Norman style of architecture of the twelfth century, which tradition names 'La maison des Plaids,' and avers was the revenue office and court-house of the archbishops. this name, "the House of the Plaids," is touchingly significant of Fleance with the royal wearers of the tartan ..."
But I really cannot pursue further these "ingenious and learned" new lichts. A dreadful vision of dog-totems, arrayed in the Stewart tartan, and feasting, with fiery visage, on pancakes in the streets of Dol, warns me to leave this realm of wonders and turn to the world in which we live. From "the House of the Plaids" I flee.* [*It is positively the lunch fact that the author so renders the name of the 'Maison des Plaids' here the (Arch)bishops are supposed to have held their pleas ("plaids").]
Fortunately Flaald is a name, for practical purposes, unique; and we need not, therefore, hesitate to recognize in "Float filius Alani dapiferi" who was present (No. 1136) at the dedication of Monmouth; Priory (1101 or 1102) the long-sought missing link. We thus connect him with the fourth, the remaining cell of St. Florent de Saumur in England. But we have yet to account for his appearance as a 'baron' of the lord of Monmouth, William son of Baderon. The best authority on Domesday tenants, Mr. A. S. Ellis confessed that he had failed to trace the lords of Monmouth in Britanny.* [*_Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire_, p. 46.] The key, however, to the whole connection is found in the abbey of St. Florent de Saumur and in its charters calendared in my work. In the latter half of the eleventh century many Bretons of noble birth were led to take the cowl. Among them was William, eldest son of that Rhiwallon, lord of Dol, whom, on the eve of the Norman Conquest, Duke William and Harold of England had relieved when he was besieged by his lord. Rhiwallon's son William, who was followed by his brother John (No. 1116), entered the abbey of St. Florent de Saumur, and became its abbot himself in 1070. Zealous in the cause of the house he ruled, he clearly urged its claims at Dol, receiving not only local gifts, but also, as its chronicle mentions, the endowments it obtained in England. Of the two families with which we are concerned the lords of Monmouth can, by these charters, be traced to __, the neighbourhood of Dol, for William son of Baderon confirms his father's gifts at Epiniac and La Boussac (No. 1134), which places lay together close to Dol. The presence among the witnesses to these charters of a Main or La Boussac and a Geoffrey of Epiniac affords confirmation of the fact. Guihenoc, the founder of the house in England (probably identical with "Wihenocus filius Caradoc de Labocac"),* [*Lobineau, _Histoire de Bretagne_, II, 219] undoubtedly became a monk of St. Florent,* [*_Calendar_, Nos. 1117, 1133] and resigned his English fief to his nephew William (son of his brother Baderon), who is found holding it in Domesday. Some charters were specially selected by me from the _Liber Albus_ of St. Florent (Nos. 1152-4) to illustrate, about the end of the Conqueror's reign, the little group of Dol families who were about to settle in England.* [* It would, no doubt, be a rash conjecture that the "Herveus botellarius" of these charters (Nos. 1153, 1154) was the ancestor of those Herveys, from whom the Butlers of Ireland are descended. But if it should eventually prove to be no mere coincidence, the Butlership of Ireland would have had an origin curiously parallel to the Stewardship of Scotland.] Among the witnesses to one of them are Baderon and his son the Domesday tenant. But the one family we have specially to trace is that which held the office of "Dapifer" at Dol. "Alan Dapifer" is found as a witness, in 1086, to a charter relating to Mezuoit* [*_Lobineau_, p. 250] (a cell of St. Florent, near Dol). He also, as "Alanus Siniscallus," witnessed the foundation charters of that
house (_ante_ 1080) and himself gave it rights at Mezuoit with the consent of "Fledaldus frater ejus," the monks, in return, admitting his brother Rhiwallon to their fraternity.* [*_Ibid_, 137, 138, collated by me with the _Liber Albus_ at Angers.] He appears as a witness with the above "Badero" in No. 1152, and in 1086 as a surety with Ralf de Fougeres (No. 1154). Mentioned in other St. Florent documents,*
[*_Ibid_ 232, 234] he is styled in one, "Dapifer de Dolo"* [*_Ibid_ 310]. And it is as "Alanus dapifer Dolensis" that he took part in the first crusade, 1097* [*_Ordericus Vitalis_ (Societe de l'histoire deFrance), vol. III. 507]. This style is explained in a charter of 1095, recording a gift to Marmoutier by Hamo son of Main, with consent of his lord "Rivallonius dominus Doli castri, filius Johannis rchiepiscopi", in which we read:
"Hoc donum factum est per manum Guarini monachi nostri de Lauda Rigaldi tunc temporis prioris Combornii, testibus his: Alano siniscalco Rivallonii predicti, etc.* [* Transcripts from (Bretagne) cartulary of Marmoutier in MS. Baluze 77, fo. 134, and in MS. lat. 5441 (3) fo. 343. Alan is also brought into conjunction with this Hamo son of Main in No 1152.] His brother's son, Alan fitz Flaald (ancestor, as has been seen, of the Stuarts) also occurs, in these Breton documents, as releasing his rights in the church of "Guguen"* [*Cuguen, near Dol] to Bartholomew abbot of Marmoutier;* [*_Lobineau_, II. 310; MS. lat. 5441 (3) fo. 235] while two charters of Henry I confirming the foundation of Holy Trinity Priory, York, as a cell of Marmoutier, and prior to 1108, contain his name as a witness (No. 1225). Again, a charter of donation to Andover Priory reveals him as present in the New Forest with William son of Baderon and "Wihenocus monachus" (William's uncle) early in the reign of Henry I* [*_Mon. Ang. VI. 993]. It was Alan also who founded Sporle Priory, Norfolk (No. 1149), on land he held there, as another cell of St., H Florent, the Bretons who witness his charter further attesting his origin. Among them is seen Rhiwallon "Extraneus," the founder of the Norfolk family of Le Strange, which, more than five centuries later, was so ardent in its loyalty to Alan's descendants, the Stuart kinds of England.* [*His name has hitherto remained doubtful, and is given as Roland in the _Dictionary of National Biography_
It will have been observed that "Float filius Alani dapiferi" is assumed above to have been the brother, not a son, of the crusader. This assumption is based upon the facts that the crusader's gift at Mezuoit as 'conceded' by his brother 'Fledald,' who was, therefore, his heir at the time, and that his office of "dapifer" at Dol was afterwards held -- a fact hitherto unsuspected -- by descendants of Alan fitz Flaald. The crusader, it must therefore be inferred, left no heir. The sudden rise of Alan fitz Flaald and his evident enjoyment of Henry's favour from the early years of the reign, were thought by Mr. Eyton to be due to his (fabulous) Scottish origin. But it might, with some probability, be suggested that his Breton origin accounts for the facts. When Henry was besieged in Mont St. Michel, he is known to have had Breton followers ("aggregatis Britonibus") and, after his surrender, "per Britanniam transiit, Britonibus qui sibi solummodo adminiculum contulerant, gratias reddidit" (Ordericus)* [* Elsewhere, Orderic observes that Henry, "dum esset junior ... ut externus, exterorum, id est Francorum et _Britonum_ auxilia quaerere coactus est."]. Dol was his nearest town in Britanny, and Alan may thus, like Richard de Reviers, have served him across the sea, when he was but a younger son.
It would seem, indeed, although the fact has been hitherto overlooked, that a group of families whom Henry had known when lord of the Cotentin were endowed by him when king with fiefs in England. In addition to Alan fitz Flaald, founder of the house of Stewart, and to Richard de Reviers, ancestor of the earls of Devon* [*He is found, seemingly, in Domesday, holding a single lordship], the Hayes of Haye-du-Puits were given the Honour of Halnaker (Sussex), the Aubignys, afterwards earls of Arundel, obtained from him a fief in Norfolk; the two St. John brothers, from St. Jean-le-Thomas, were granted lands in Oxfordshire and Sussex, and founded another famous house* [*See my paper on "The Families of St. John and of Port" in _Genealogist_, July 1899, p. 1. And compare p. 66 above]; while the family of Paynel also, sprung from the Cotentin, owed to Henry lands in England.
Among the documents calendered in my volume are Papal bulls to the abbey of St. Florent, ranging from 1146 to 1187 (Nos. 1124-9), which suggest that Alan's son William, who acquired by marriage Clun castle, must have bestowed its church of St. George, with all its dependent churches, on Monmouth Priory, a fact hitherto unsuspected. Mr Eyton thought that the gift of this church to Wenlock Priory by his widow (_tem._ Ric. I) represents the first occasion on which it is mentioned.
Alan fitz Flaald has hitherto been credited with two well-known sons, William and Walter, ancestors respectively of the Fitzalans and the Stewarts* [*A third son, "Simon", is claimed as the ancestor of the Boyds, and is assigned to him, with William and Walter, in Mr. Lindsay's great Stewart pedigree, the standard authority on the subject. But although a Simon 'brother' of Walter occurs as a witness in the Paisley cartulary, his name is very low on the list, and he may have been only a uterine or even a bastard brother. The Empress Maud's bastard brothers are styled her 'brothers' in her charters, nor was this unusual.]. He had, however, another son, who needs to be specially dealt with. This was Jordan, his heir in Britanny, and, apparently, at Burton in England. Mr. Eyton knew of his existence, but could state little about him. In No. 1220 we find him, as a "valiant and illustrious man," making restitution to Marmoutier in 1130, with his wife Mary and his sons Jordan and Alan. In the same year we detect him entered on the English Pipe Roll in several places, though one of the entries suggests his Breton connection* [* Rot. Pip. 31 Hen. I., p. 11]. He may safely be identified with that "Jordanus dapifer" who witnessed a charter to Mont St. Michel in 1128-29 (No. 722); and consequently he held the family office. We find him also in a St. Florent charter,* [*_Lobineau_, II. 232] and in one of Marmoutier* [*_Ibid_ 146]. Of his sons, Jordan restored to the priory of St. Florent at Sele the mill at Burton given it by Alan fitz Flaald* [*"Jordanus filius Jordani filius Alani hominibus suis de Burt[ona]. Sciatis me reddidisse monachis S. Florentii de Salmur molendinum de Burt[ona] sicut habuerunt tempore Alani filii Flealdi et tempore Jordani patris mei" (original charter at Magdalen College)], but was, probably, soon succeeded by his brother Alan, who confirmed to a priory of Marmoutier (No. 1221) another gift of his grandfather, Alan fitz Flaald, at Burton, mentioning his wife Joan and his son Jordan* [*It was either this Jordan or his grandfather who, as "Jordanus filius Alani siniscalli," confirmed a gift to Combourg (MS. lat. 5441 (3) 437)]. This Alan, who meets us also, as his father's son, in a Savigny charter (No. 824), is identical with that "Alanum filium quondam Jordani Dolensem senescallum," who confirmed the grant of his grandfather Alan (fitz Flaald) at Cuguen, and himself added the church of Tronquet* [*MS. lat. 12,878, fo. 248d., and _Lobineau_, II. 310] about 1160* [*The gift is wrongly assigned in _Gallia Christiana_ (XIV.1074) to 1133-1147, as being made before Hugh archbishop of Tours. The prelate was Hugh "archbishop" of Dol, whose date was 1155-1161 (_Ibid_. 1050).] We have further in No. 1013 the confirmation by Alexander III of his gifts to the abbey of Tiron, including the church of Sharrington and three others in England. He attested a charter of the lord of Dol in 1145* [*_Lobineau_, II. 147] and, in or about 1165, a royal charter at Winchester concerning a release by his fellow-countryman Geoffrey son of Oliver de Dinan* [*_Mon. Ang.,_ VI. 486]. He also leads the list of witnesses in a dispute about the abbey of Vieuville (in the parish of Epiniac) in 1167, as "Alanus filius Jordani dapifer."* [*_Lobineau_, II. 308; MS. lat. 5476, fol. 98d]. His wife Joan and daughter Olive were benefactors to the abbey of Vieuville for his soul.* [*"Johanna uxor Alani dapiferi de Dolo et filia ipsius Oliva." _Lobineau_, II. 310; MS. lat. 5476, fo. 91.] With this clue we return to England, and detect the heiress of the Stewards of Dol in that Olive, daughter of Alan "filius Jordani," who in 1227 was impleaded by one of her Breton tenants -- his father Iwan had been infeoffed by her own father Alan -- at Sharrington, Norfolk. The record of the suit gives us the name of Alan's mother, Mary, mentioned as we have seen, in No. 1220.* [* _Bracton's Note-book_, III. 620. Compare 'Feet of Fines' (Pipe Roll Society), II. 160.] In the middle, therefore, of the 12th century, this family flourished simultaneously in Scotland, England, and BritannySCII.
1. ALAN, Dapifer (Dolensis)
2. ALAN, son of #1, Dapifer Dolensis occurs in Britanny ante 1080 and in 1086; a leader in first Crusade 1097
3. FLAALD, son of #1, occurs at Monmouth 1101 or 1102 'frater' (et 'filius') Alani Dapiferi
4. RHIWALLON, son of #1, Monk of St. Florent
5. ALAN Fitz Flaald, son of #3, Founder of Sporle Priory
6. JORDAN Fitz Alan, son of #5, occurs 1129-30, Benefactor of Sele Priory. Occurs also in Britanny as "Dapifer" (Dolensis).
7. WILLIAM Fitz Alan, son of #5, Founder of Haughmond Priory ob. [died] 1160, (Benefactor of Monmouth Priory)
8. WALTER Fitz Alan, son of #5, "Dapifer Regis Scotiae" ob. 1177, Founder of Paisley Abbey
9. ALAN Fitz Jordan, son of #6, Dapifer Dolensis, Founder of Tronquet 1155-1161, living 1167* [* Among the obits at Dol we find that of another daughter of Alan fitz Jordan: "Kal. Sept. obiit Aelicia uxor G[uillelmi] Espine filia Alani Jordanis quae dedit episcopo et capitulo Dol ... pratum senescalli,", etc. (Gaigneres' Transcript of Cartulary, MS. lat. 5211 C). A charter of her husband William Spina, son of Hamo, confirms the donations made to Vieuville "de feodo Aeliz uxoris mee filie Alani Dolensis senescalli ... concedente Alano filio nostro" (MS. lat. 5476, fo. 85). His father Hamo Spina occurs immediately after "Alan filius Jordanis dapifer" in the above letter of 1167 (_Ib._ fo. 98d). As we read of "Gaufridus Spina Doli senescallus" (_Ib._ fo. 91d) it would seem that the Dol office was inherited by the Spina family, and the English estates by the other daughter.]
10. JORDAN Fitz Jordan, son of #6
11. ALAN Fitz Alan, son of #7, ob. infans
12. WILLIAM Fitz Alan, son of #7, _a quo _Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel
13. ALAN The Steward, son of #8, "Senescallus Regis Scotiae"
A chronological difficulty is created by Mr. Eyton's statement that Alan fitz Flaald was "dead ante 1114", for his son (it will be seen) the
Steward of Scotland lived till 1177. It is desirable, therefore, to examine his authority for this date. Dugdale was acquainted with a
confirmation by Sybil, lady of Wolston (Warwickshire), of a gift by her mother Adeliza to Burton Abbey of land in Wolston. In his _History of
Warwickshire_ (p. 33) he held that she was probably a daughter of Alan fitz Flaald, because Alan was "enfeoft of this Lordship" before her.
Mr. Eyton accepted Dugdale's conclusion, and therefore identified her mother 'Adeliza' as that 'Avelina' de Hesdin, whom he had so skilfully shown to be the wife of Alan. Further, as the land _ex hypethesi_ belonged to Alan himself, and yet was given by her, she must, he held, have been a widow at the time of the gift; and as the abbey was already in possession at least as early as 1114, Alan, he concluded, must have been dead before that date.* [*_History of Shropshire_, VII, 221-223, 228]. These conclusions created difficulties, but, on Mr. Eyton's great authority, they have been duly accepted.* [*_Burton Cartulary_, Ed. Wrottesley (Salt Arch. Collections, 1884), pp. 32, 33.] Yet the whole edifice rests on Dugdale's careless reading of a document in the Burton Cartulary.* [*_Ibid_. p. 33 _bis_]. That document does not connect Alan fitz Flaald with Wolston.
The facts are these. In Domesday the three Warwickshire manors of Church Lawford, Wolston, and Stretton-on-Dunsmore are entered together (fo. 239) as held of Earl Roger (of Shrewsbury) by that 'Rainaldus', whom the historian of Shropshire so brilliantly identifies with Renaud de Bailleul* [*_History of Shropshire_, VII. 206 et seq.]. We find him, accordingly as "Rainaldus de Bailoul,"* [* See my Calendar, p. 202] confirming in No. 578 the gifts at Wolston and Church Lawford of his own under-tenant, a certain Hubert Baldran. Another of the charters in my Calendar (No. 579) proves that this Hubert (not Alan fitz Flaald), was the father of Sybil, lady of 'Wlfrichestone' (Wolston), from whom we started. Thus Adeliza, mother of Sybil, and wife of Hubert Baldran, was quite distinct from "Avelina" wife of Alan fitz Flaald, with whom Mr. Eyton rashly identified her.* [*She has been even further promoted in the British Museum Catalogue of Stowe MSS., where, in the abstract of the original deed (Stow charter 103), she is strangely identified with queen Adeliza, widow of Henry I.] Alan may have lived, and probably did, beyond 1114; and his gift at Stretton to Burton Abbey was made after he was placed in the shoes (as Mr. Eyton has shown) of Renaud de Bailleul.
We have thus seen how a single charter may prove of great importance, not only in establishing the true facts, but in demolishing erroneous conclusions with the corollaries based thereon. Within the last few weeks there has unexpectedly been revived that view of the origin of the Stewarts which had long, one thought, been abandoned. As the whole story is most curious, and has, moreover, an
important moral, I propose to discuss it in some detail. The pedigree of the Stuarts "of Hartley Mauduit," who hold a baronetcy dating from 1660, began in _Burke's Peerage_, so recently as last year, with Sir Nicholas Stuart the first baronet, "son of Simeon Stuart, Esq." But now, in this year of grace 1900, -- "A more thorough revision than usual has been possible ... To the laborious researches and experienced counsel of my brother, Mr. H. Farnham Burke, Somerset Herald, the genealogical and heraldic value of this work is much indebted and is gratefully acknowledged _(sic)_."
The "laborious researches" of Somerset Herald have indeed developed the Stuart pedigree, thanks to those "invaluable documents the Heralds' Visitations, documents of high authority and value."* [* Preface to Burke's _Landed Gentry_, Ed. 1898.]
"The illustrious ancestry of this family is given fully in the Visitations of Cambridge _(sic)_, 1575 and 1619, in which is traced their descent from the Royal Stuarts. "ANDREW STUART, younger son of Alexander Stuart, 2nd son of Walter Stuart, seneschal of Scotland, great-grandson of Walter, 1st high steward of Scotland, grandson of Banquo Lord of Lochaber. He m. the daughter of James Bethe, and had an only son. "ALEXANDER STUART, to whom Charles VI of France granted an honourable augmentation of his arms." And so the pedigree proceeds through another eight generations down to the first baronet.
Dear old 'Banquo,' "whom we miss"!* [*_Macbeth_] What a pleasure it is to welcome him back among us once more, and to know that he, and not Flaald, was the founder of the house of Stuart on the unimpeachable authority of the Heralds and their 'Visitations'! It is true that, according to the "Royal Lineage"* [*_Burke's Peerage_, 1900, pp. cliii-cliv] contained in the same volume, it was not descended from
Banquo at all, and that the "above Alexander Stuart, 2nd son of Walter Stuart", had no existence; but these are details with the editor, doubtless, will see to in his next edition. It is also true that the new pedigree would at once make Sir Simeon Stuart heir-male of "the Royal Stuarts", an honour foolishly claimed by sundry Scottish families.* [*see p. 89 above.] Let us hope that Somerset Herald will
inform Lyon King of Arms that his "laborious researches" have decided this long-contested question.
But, seriously speaking, what is the origin of the new descent, which, this year, makes its appearance in _Burke's Peerage_? Well, the story is, or ought to be, familiar to all genealogists. For, owing to Oliver Cromwell's mother having been a member of this family, his Stuart descent was alluded to by Carlyle, which has given genealogists the opportunity of making merry at his expense. The alleged descent was, for several years, discussed in the recognised organ of genealogical research;* [*_The Genealogist_ (N.S.) vols. I (1884), II, III, VIII, X (1893)] but of this discussion Somerset Herald is, no doubt, ignorant.
So far back, indeed, as 1878 the very interesting heraldic glass of which I am enabled to give an illustration was exhibited to the Archaeological Institute, and that well-known Scottish authority, Mr. Joseph Bain,* [*Editor of the 'Calendar of documents relating to Scotland,' the 'Hamilton Papers,' the 'Calendar of letters and papers referring to the Borders,' etc. etc.] discussed the whole story thereon
before it. He then observed of the alleged grant by "Charles VI of France," to which Somerset Herald appeals.
"In M. Michel's _Les Ecossais en France_, published in 1862, he gives a drawing of this very design, and the text of the asserted grant by Charles VI of France in the fifth year of his reign, conferring the strange coat of arms on Sir Alexander Stuart on account of the merits of his father Andrew.