- In 1967 my Mother, Mabel McKinney Rhein, received a letter and some details on her Stewart line from, her cousin, Heber Ivor Rankin in which he showed the patriliner line of descent as being from Alan Seneschal of Dol. As I began to document further the Stewart line, I placed all of the background material in this section. When the article by Henry Stewart Fothringham in 'The Stewarts', The Stewart Society, Vol.21, No 2 2001, Edinburgh, showed that Alan Seneschal of Dol was in the maternal line, I corrected the lineage but elected to leave the background work that I had done earlier, with a few minor corrections, in this section. (Note to File - J.P. Rhein)
In addition to the material below, also see "The Origins of the Stewarts", by J. Horace Round, taken from "Studies in Peerage and Family History" Westminister, Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd, 1901, pages 115-146, under 'Notes Section', Flaad Dapifer, son of Alan Dapifer, following. (Note to File - J. P. Rhein)
Alan Seneschal of Dol and Doinan was descended from a powerful Breton family, the Seneschals of Dol, who in turn apparently descended from Froamidus, Count of Brittany, who lived in the middle of the eighth century. (Source - The Stewart Society, 17 Dublin Street, Edinburgh)
"The historic house of Stewart takes its surname from the mediaeval office of hereditary Great Steward of Scotland, which is still held by their descendants in the female line, H.R.H. Prince Charles. Before they came to Scotland, the family were noble Bretons, hereditary Stewards of Dol ten centuries ago, and were descended from the Counts of Dol and Dinan, who were a branch of the ancient dark-age ruling dynasty of Brittany. Their origins streach far back into the very roots of European history and it is fitting that the family gave the first monarchs to united Britan. They became kings of Scots in 1371 and were soverigns of England and Ireland as well, 1603-1715." (Source - "The Stewarts", The Stewart Society, Edinburgh, Vol.21, No1, 2000)
"Senecal, Senechal, Seneschal means 'old servant' and Dapifer is from the 11th century and means 'food-bringer'. " (Source - The Stewarts, Volume XX No 4 (1999), pages 267 and 268)
Information on the line of descent, from Alan Dapifer to Archibald Stewart of Wigtownshire, Scotland was compared to the Stewart line as shown by The Stewart Society and appropriate references noted. It was compared with the "loose leaf files on the Stewarts" in the Genealogy Department of the New York City Public Library, Genealogy Department, and appropriate additions and references noted. This line differs in several respects from that of Dr. Robert F. Miller. They are as follows.
First, here are two versions of "A Family of Millers and Stewarts" by Dr. Robert F. Miller, August 1909. Version one is dated August 1909, St. Louis, Missouri. There is a second version in which Miller made a number of handwritten entries to the first version. This second version also contains a hand written preface by Miller, dated Brenham, Texas, June 30, 1917.
The first version contains "The Stewart Genealogy" which copy is identical to the one in "Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin", Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1995, STEWART - 1a. Rankin attributes this photocopy of the chart to Miller. Most genealogists and researchers following the Stewart line have referred to and extracted information from these identical charts. The reference numbers to the generations in the following six paragraphs begin with Walter Fitz Alan, born about 1106, the First High Steward of Scotland through Sir William Stewart, born about 1582 in Wigtownshire, Scotland.
Miller and I are in agreement through generation five, Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl. Sir John had five sons and one daughter. In generation six Miller shows only one son, Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn. In the sixth generation I have son Sir John Stewart of Daldar. In that sixth generation there is also son Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton whose great-granddaughter, Marion Stewart, Heiress of Garlies and Dalswinton, married her third cousin Sir John Stewart of Garlies, the 2nd great-grandson of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl.
This is important as I show four generations of descent from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl to Sir John Stewart of Garlies whereas Miller shows five. I have reexamined this many times over the years and I remain of the view that Miller's Alexander Stewart of Derneley and Cruickestoun and the following entry of Alexander Stewart of Derneley may be a duplication, particularly when you parse the several lines of descent of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl.
Miller follows his line in generation seven with, Sir Alexander Stewart of Derneley and Cruickestoun (followed by his generation eight with Sir Alexander Stewart of Derneley). We are in agreement in the following generation, my generation eight (his ninth) with Sir William Stewart of Jedworth. The following generation, my ninth, shows Sir John Stewart who married his third cousin, Marion Stewart.
In Miller's second version, a copy of which I obtained from the Library of Congress, The Genealogy Chart contains a number of scribbled-in entries and confusing lines. Miller had sent the original chart to genealogists is Scotland who modified it. Either Miller subsequently visited the Library or mailed in the "so called corrected copy" which also contains a number of entries in his handwriting. I suspect it was the former although those Stewart researchers that I have corresponded on this matter simply do not know. This second version contains the interesting comment on page 24 wherein he places an asterisk on Alexander Stewart and states that this should be the Right Reverend Alexander Stewart of Bath Farm, North Carolina. He was married to Rose Hall. And, of course, Miller was incorrect with this and with respect to William Stewart married to Sara McKibben.
For the record, the modified line of descent in the second version is the same as the first version through Sir William Stewart of Dalswinton and Garlies. Miller then inserts Sir Thomas Stewart of Minto. This is followed by Sir Walter Stewart of Tonderagee. He then inserts John of Barclye and his son, Archibald who is the father of Sir William Stewart, born about 1582 in Wigtownshire, Scotland.
Finally, "A Heritage, Biography and Family History of Harold W. Stewart" by Nora M. Stewart, contains a chart which she attributes to Heber Rankin except her analysis differs at generation four where she shows son Alexander, the Fourth High Stewart of Scotland James Stewart, then James the Fifth High Steward of Scotland, brother of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl. This takes her line through King Robert II of Scotland. She then selects son Sir William Stewart of Jedworth followed by his son Sir John Stewart married to Marion Stewart thus bringing her line into agreement with Miller, Rankin and my own analysis. Nora Stewart sets forth no documentation in support of her position, nor does she state why she differs from Miller and Rankin with respect to the line of descent as to Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl.
In summary, these differences in several generations between Miller's first version, Rankin and myself are not significant. I do not believe Norma's conclusion is correct. I felt it was important, however, to explain these differences in my work. (Note to File - JP Rhein)
I did not enter Marion Stewart as the daughter of Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton and Garlies in my Family Tree Maker files as this software does not permit viewing or printing the male line only. Showing both the lineage from Sir John Stewart of Garlies and his wife Marion Stewart this early in the line results in significant duplication. As I prefer the lineage to follow the male line, I elected to handle it this way. An appropriate comment has been made in the 'Notes Section' at Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton. (Note to file - JP Rhein)
The patrilinear descent of our Stewart line begins with Erc of Irish Dalrida (Dal n'Araide). Note to File by JP Rhein)
Excerpts from a letter, dated May 10, 1967, from Heber Rankin, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 3rd cousin once removed of Joseph Philip Rhein, to Clayton Vogel, first cousin of Joseph Philip Rhein, follows. " I now have 18 generations back beyond our Revolutionary War Veteran, Lieutenant William Stewart, back to a little village of Dol in Brittany, France in the year 1040 A.D. Our ancestor came over to England with William the Conqueror and fought in the battle of Hastings in 1066. For his services in that battle he was given large tracts of land in England and about 100 years later some of the descendents came to Scotland in the train of David I of Scotland. There were given tracts of land in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire, and one William Stewart came to the Laggan in County Donegal, Ireland about 1608 as Captain of a Scottish regiment that was sent to protect the English and Scottish settler who came there at the time of the Plantation."
Heber Rankin does not specify which of our ancestors came with William the Conqueror. According to "The Stewarts", published by The Stewart Society, Volume XX, No. 3, 1998, page 177, "It is known that the Dapifers of Dol in Brittany had estates in Wales and there was much coming and going between Wales and Brittany and their language was quite similar. The Dapifers of Dol (later to become the Stewards of Scotland) had various connections with the Abbey of Saint Florent in South Brittany about the same time that Florence of Worcester was a renowned monk."
It is possible that Alan Dapifer, who died in Brittany in 1050, travelled between Brittany and Wales. His son Flaald Dapifer was born about 1046 in Brittany and died there, sometime between 1089 and 1145. It is also possible that Flaald travelled between Brittany and Wales; however, I have not found any evidence that he accompanied William the Conqueror and fought in the battle of Hastings.
There is no question that Alan Fitz Flaald, grandson of Alan Dapifer, born in Brittany, came to England. The Complete Peerage, Volume V, pages 391-392, states, "Alan Fitz Flaald obtained soon after the Norman conquest a grant of the Castle of Oswestry at Shopshire".
The list of Companions of Duke William at Hastings contains the name Alan Fitz Flaad. These were the commanders. They were the elite who had provided men, ships, horses, and supplies for the venture. They were granted Lordships. Some of the references to descendants of Alan appear to use Flaald and Flaad interchangeably so it is possible that this is the the same individual. Some sources place his date of birth about 1078 while the battle was fought some 12 years earlier, in 1066.
In an article, Companions of William, which appeared in The Genealogists' Magazine, Volume 9, September 1944, No. 11, London; it is stated that many individuals received grants of land from William the Conqueror following that battle, even though they did not participate in it and, in a number of instances, came to England following the battle. This may be the case with respect to Alan Fitz Flaald.
Finally, in "The Conqueror and His Companions" by J. R. Planche, Somerset Herald, London; Tinsley Brothers, 1814, Chapter VI; Roger de Montgommeri, one of the great barons in Normandy and a cousin of William, is listed as one on the top commanders accompanying him to England and fighting in that battle. He later became Earl of Arundel and Shewsbury. His son, Robert, married the granddaughter of Alan Fitz Flaad. (Notes to file by J. P. Rhein)
Julian and Gregorian Calendars
Beginning in 45 B.C., many parts of the world used the Julian calendar to mark the passage of time. According to the Julian calendar, March 25 was the first day of the year and each year was 365 days and 6 hours long. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII determined that the Julian calendar was incorrect: each day was just a little bit too long. This meant that the human calendar was not keeping up with nature's calendar, and the seasons kept arriving slightly earlier in the year. To solve the problem, Pope Gregory XIII created the Gregorian calendar - the calendar that we use officially in the United States - with the first day of the year set to January 1. He also had everyone jump ahead by 10 days to make up for the days lost by using the Julian calendar.
The practice of writing double dates resulted from this switch to the Gregorian calendar, and also from the fact that not all countries accepted the new calendar at the same time. For example, England and the American colonies did not officially accept the new calendar until 1752. Before 1752, the English government still observed March 25 as the first of the year, but most of the population observed January 1. For this reason, many people wrote dates falling between January I and March 25 with both years.
By the time England and the colonies adopted the new Gregorian calendar, the discrepancy between the two calendars was eleven days, instead of ten. To resolve the discrepancy, the government ordered that September 2, 1752 be followed by September 14, 1752. Some people also added 11days to their birth dates (a fact which is not noted on their birth certificates). (Note to File - JPRhein)